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Lecture-1 & 2


Operating System Functions of OS Types of OS

memory and other devices. Schedules input. nearest to hardware which facilitates launching of all the other software utilities and applications. output and data processing. display. Manages keyboard.Operating System: Definition It is the software layer.   OS provides wide range of generic data services. processor.   .

e-mail. How easy it is !  . For instance : computer games. browsing or preparing documents are applications launched by simply clicking on cue icons.User and OS  OS facilitates use of resources by hiding local details and presenting an interface which is convenient to use.

Fig: An Abstract view of Computer system/components .

As a provider of resources .   . System perspective : efficiency in usage of resources is the main consideration.User and System View  User perspective : ease of usage is the main consideration.OS must have a policy and a control program to regulate the allocation of resources.

.Task/Work/Functions of OS          Interface Storage Management Schedules the resources Device Management Facilitating Networking Security to user Control & allocate memory Decides priority of application programs Interrupts etc.

Types of OS     Batch OS Multiprogramming Real Time Systems Time Sharing OS .

Batch OS  Process for job took a lot of time & no user interaction. User are not required to wait while the jobs was processed. Jobs with similar needs where batched together & run through the computer. They can submit their programs & return later to collect the output.   .

Another criteria “Shortest Job next”. System uses FCFS criteria.Features of Batch O.   2.  a) b) Memory Management Memory divided into two parts: O.S User program Area .  Process Scheduling Allocation process for job to a processor is called as process scheduling.S 1.

Fig: Memory layout for a simple Batch O.S Operating System User Program Area .

so there is no contention for allocation of I/O devices. 4.3.S provides the serial file management for accessing so that no need of concurrency control is required. File Management  Batch O. . I/P & O/P Management  Since only one program or batch used to be under execution at a time.

2. Non. . 3. 4.interactive Off line debugging More waiting time More time requirement for creation of batches.S 1.Disadvantages of Batch O.

Multiprogramming OS Late 60’s and early 70’s     Storing multiple executables (at the same time) in the main memory is called multiprogramming. therefore. the immediate consideration is: we now need a policy to allocate memory and processor time to the resident programs. . With multiple executables residing in the main memory. By utilizing the processor for another process when a process is engaged in input or output the processor utilization and. its output are higher. Multiprogramming leads to higher throughput.


. Time shared systems must inherently support multiprogramming. Each one gets a time-slice for his job. Users get an illusion as if he has the whole system for himself.Time Sharing OS     Multiple users access the system.


S     RTOS have fixed time constraints. Primary objective is to provide quick event response time & meet the scheduling deadline. . 2. Divided into two parts: Soft Real Time System Hard Real Time System 1. User convenience & resource utilization are secondary concerned.Real Time O.

 .  File Management Satisfies the requirement of protection & access control.Features of RTOS 1. 3.   Memory Management It is less demanding than other type of systems. 2. Reason: many process permanently reside in memory in order to provide quick response. Objective to speed up the access.  Input-Output Management RTOS provides system calls to execute the process & gives the resultant output.

Has two or more processor in close communication & sharing the computer bus & memory & other peripherals. 2. Are of two types: Asymmetric multi processor Symmetric multi processor .   1.Multiprocessor System  Also called as Parallel System.

Scheme defines master-slave relation. . Other processes either look to master for instruction or as predefined task.     Asymmetric multiprocessor Every processor is assigned a specific task. A Master processor controls the system.Multiprocessor System 1.

CPU CPU CPU Memory Fig: Symmetric multiprogramming Architecture . Symmetric Multiprocessor   Every processor performs all tasks within one as & communicate within one another as needed. Simple means that all processors are separate & no master slave relationship exists b/w the processors.Multiprocessor System 2.

 Increased Throughput Increasing no.  2. of processors get more work done in less time. Cost Effective  . storage systems & power supply. Saves more money than multiple single processor because they can share various peripherals. Speed of ratio with „N‟ processor is not N it is less than „N‟. Due to overheads and contention.Advantages of Multiprocessor 1.

If one processor fails the other will take over & share the work of failed processor. Increased Reliability   Failure of one processor will not stop the system. .Advantages of Multiprocessor 3.

Network Collections of Computers are connected with Each other. In this Data is shared between many users. When a Data is stored on to the Multiple Computers. .Distributed OS     Distributed Means Data is Stored and Processed on Multiple Locations. And we can also Access all the Input and Output Devices are also accessed by Multiple Users. those are placed in Different Locations. Distributed means In the Network.