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**College Physics, 7th Edition
**

Wilson / Buffa / Lou

© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

**18.1 Resistances in Series, Parallel, and Series–Parallel Combinations
**

• A few things about resistance before we start!!!! • The resistance symbol is …..

– We can use the resistance symbol to represent ANY type of circuit element.

• Assume constant resistance unless otherwise stated.

Inc.1 Resistances in Series. and Series–Parallel Combinations Resistors in series all have the same current. Parallel. © 2010 Pearson Education. Individual voltages across the resistors add up to equal the voltage across the battery terminals.18. .

1 Resistances in Series.18. and Series–Parallel Combinations • Series means head to tail (so a + is connected to a -) • Why must current stay the same in each through each resistor? . Parallel.

Parallel.1 Resistances in Series.18. and Series–Parallel Combinations • Let’s simplify the first picture: .

Inc. .1 Resistances in Series. © 2010 Pearson Education. but maintain the same current is called: Equivalent Series Resistance This formula is valid for any number of resistors in series. Let’s do a simple example…. Parallel. and Series–Parallel Combinations The resistance value of a single resistor that could replace all resistors.18.

and Series–Parallel Combinations • 2 major disadvantages of Series Connections: – If one bulb burns out… – Each bulb operates at less than the battery voltage… . Parallel.1 Resistances in Series.18.

© 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. . and Series–Parallel Combinations Resistors in parallel have common connections (+ and +) Resistors in parallel all have the same voltage. Current wants to take path of least resistance. Parallel. Parallel circuits divide into different paths.18.1 Resistances in Series.

18.1 Resistances in Series. Parallel. and Series–Parallel Combinations • Let’s simplify the first parallel picture: .

1 Resistances in Series. . The equivalent resistance in a parallel configuration is always less than the smallest resistance….18. Parallel. and Series–Parallel Combinations The equivalent parallel resistance is the value of a single resistor that could replace all the resistors in the parallel configuration and maintain the same current.for example… © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

and Series–Parallel Combinations • What is the equivalent resistance of 3 resistors (1.0 ohm. • (c) How much total current will be delivered by a 12 V battery in each of these arrangements? • (d) How much current will be in each resistor and what is the voltage drop across each resistor in each arrangement? . and 3.0 ohm) when connected (a) in series and (b) in parallel.1 Resistances in Series. 2. Parallel.18.0 ohm.

1 Resistances in Series. Parallel. and Series–Parallel Combinations • Christmas Tree Lights: – How they use to work – How they work now… .18.

will the other bulbs each • (a) glow a little more brightly • (b) glow a little more dimly • (c) be unaffected . as in the picture on the last slide.1 Resistances in Series.18. Parallel. and Series–Parallel Combinations • Consider a string of Christmas tree lights composed of bulbs with jumper shunts. If the filament of one bulb burns out and the shunt completes the circuit.

Parallel. . (You may have to reduce multiple times) – Find the current delivered to the reduced circuit using I = V/Rtotal – Expand the reduced circuit back to the actual circuit to find currents and voltages for the resistors in each step.1 Resistances in Series. and Series–Parallel Combinations • Here is a procedure to analyze Series-Parallel Resistor Combinations – Determine which groups of resistors are in series and which are in parallel and then reduce.18.

Inc. Parallel.1 Resistances in Series. . simplify piece by piece.18. and Series–Parallel Combinations For combination circuits. © 2010 Pearson Education.

Parallel.18.1 Resistances in Series. and Series–Parallel Combinations .

and Series–Parallel Combinations .1 Resistances in Series. Parallel.18.

18. and Series–Parallel Combinations .1 Resistances in Series. Parallel.

18. Parallel. and Series–Parallel Combinations .1 Resistances in Series.

1 Resistances in Series. Parallel. and Series–Parallel Combinations • What are the voltages across and currents in each of the resistors R1 through R5 in the figure to the right? • This is a REALLY great FRQ! .18.

2 Multiloop Circuits and Kirchhoff’s Rules Some circuits can’t always be reduced by pure series and parallel methods. A dude named Kirchhoff made some rules… © 2010 Pearson Education.18. Inc. .

The sum of all currents at any junction is 0. Inc. This means that the current coming into the junction must be equal to the current leaving the junction. . © 2010 Pearson Education.2 Multiloop Circuits and Kirchhoff’s Rules Kirchhoff’s first rule is the junction rule: *First a junction (or node) is a point where 3 or more wires are joined.18. *A path connecting 2 junctions is called a branch.

Inc.18.2 Multiloop Circuits and Kirchhoff’s Rules Kirchhoff’s second rule is the loop rule: The sum of the potential differences around a closed loop is zero. © 2010 Pearson Education. Sign conventions for traversing batteries and resistors are at left. .

• (a) Which resistor will carry the most current: R1. R2. . This combination is in series with a third resistor. or R3? Explain.18. R3.2 Multiloop Circuits and Kirchhoff’s Rules • Two resistors R1 and R2 are connected in parallel. which has the largest resistance of the three.

but these work also on magnetic properties so we will discuss in Chapter 19. • Also. • Finally. Household circuits and electrical safety will not be tested as well so we can skip Section 18. . from pages 641-643 is discussing galvanometers.Skipping • Pages 637-641 we are skipping! You will not be tested on RC circuits.5.

4 Ammeters and Voltmeters The deflection of a galvanometer is proportional to the current. .18. © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

18. Inc. . © 2010 Pearson Education. its resistance should be as small as possible.4 Ammeters and Voltmeters An ammeter measures current. it must be connected in series. so as not to change the existing current significantly. In order to do this.

4 Ammeters and Voltmeters A voltmeter measures voltage. it must be connected in parallel across the voltage to be measured. In order to do this. its resistance should be as large as possible. © 2010 Pearson Education. so as not to change the existing voltage significantly. Inc. .18.

4 Ammeters and Voltmeters Multirange meters have a selection of shunt and multiplier resistors. to optimize the measurement of currents and voltages of different magnitudes.18. © 2010 Pearson Education. . Inc.

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