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Food Processing Principles
Chapter 4: Meat Processing

Louis Lagrange

Lecture Structure        SA Meat Processing Market What is muscle/meat? Conversion of muscle into meat Meat Processing categories Meat Processing flow diagrams Equipment required Additives and ingredients .

SA Meat Processing Market    750 000 metric tons R 5 billion Abattoir sizes .

phosphorus. Selenium. B6. B12. iron.What is meat?     Skeletal muscle and fat Can include organs Can include blood Excellent source of: – protein. niacin. amino acids. riboflavin   Blend with cheaper products Red meat (myoglobin) vs white meat . zinc.

Composition of meat  3 muscle types – Skeletal muscle (40 % of carcass weight) – used for processing – Smooth muscle – Cardiac muscle .

Composition of meat  Meat typically consist of the following: – Water 75 % – Protein 20 % – Fat 3 % – Soluble non nitrous ingredients 2 %  Meat Protein: – Water soluble (sarcoplasmic) – Salt soluble (myofribrillar) – Insoluble protein (connective tissue) .

Functional characteristics     Water absorption and water binding Gel formation Cohesion and adhesion Fat content and emulsification – Fat content variable – Leads to oxidation and rancidity .

Meat Processing Principles  1. Convert muscle to meat – Muscle consists of water. protein & fat  2. Convert meat into high quality. attractive processed product .

Muscle to meat     Stun animal Kill animal Homeostasis (attempt to sustain life) Blood escape – 50 % blood is removed – 50 % remain in vital organs – Remove microorganisms breeding ground – Appearance of the meat .

5 after 24 hours – Processor – final pH as well as rate of change .Muscle to meat  Homeostasis (attempt to sustain life) – Oxygen in muscle exhausted after slaughter – Anaerobic reactions take place – Energy from converting glycogen to lactic acid – Lactic acid causes pH drop – Final pH depend on glycogen present – pH 7 to 5.3 – 5.7 in 6 to 8 hours – pH 5.5 – 5.

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Problems!  Dark Firm Dry (DFD) – Animal stress before slaughtering – Absence of glycogen – Reduces lactic acid formation – pH lowers to > 6.2   Unsuitable for prosessor – colour & microbial activity But good water binding & emulsification .

5 – Higher temperature of meat – protein damage   Prosessor: protein denaturation (not soluble. soft and Watery (PSW) – Increase of glycogen and conversion to lactic acid – Low pH < 5. cannot bind water) Lower emulsion properties .Problems!  Pale.

Heat loss     Circulation lost Muscle and internal temperature rise pH lowers Protein is denaturised (water binding capabilities is reduced) Processor: remove heat through cooling keep at 15 °C until rigor mortis is completed   .

shrinkage Processor: the higher the rigor mortis.Rigor mortis       After slaughtering stiffening: Cattle 12 – 24 hours Sheep 12 – 18 hours Relaxing and softening starts after rigor mortis Muscles cut before rigor complete . the tougher the meat and the greater the water loss Processor: start curing only after rigor mortis  .

Electrical stimulation  Electrical current at specific frequency – Increase onset of rigor mortis (4 hours) – Increase pH lowering (tender meat) – Cut carcass earlier – Less dripping losses – Prevents cold crimping (0 – 10 °C) – Prevents defrosting rigor (freeze before rigor complete) .

Pause .

salami. Corned meat  Minced meat products – Hamburger patties. sausages  Emulsified meat products – French polony. frankfurters.Processing Categories  Whole meat products – Muscle tissue is still recognizable – Bacon. meat loaves . Ham.

Generic flow diagrams .