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Entry Stage of Consultation

CG 621 Dougherty text, Chapter 3

Overall Stages of Consultation
1. 2. 3. 4.
Entry Diagnosis Implementation Disengagement

Exploring organizational needs Contracting Physically entering the system Psychologically entering the system .Entry Stage—Four Phases 1. 2. 4. 3.

Exploring Organizational Needs Primary decision—whether the consultation should take place Familiarization—answers to four questions 1. 4. Why am I here?—perceived need. problem definition Who are you?—defines roles to be taken on What is likely to happen?—means and ends. 3. 2. goal(s) What will be the result?—assessment issues First Phase of Entry Stage .

Potential Pitfalls in Entry Stage • Entry process can be jeopardized by consultant – – – – Fail to identify the real problem Promise too much Fail to adequately specify consultant roles Fail to recognize lack of competence related to identified problem – Fail to adapt to and plan for the organization’s particular problems and concerns .

and discuss how these might affect the potential consultation plan/experience .Potential Pitfalls in Entry Stage (2) • Process can also be jeopardized by consultee – Fail to properly screen a prospective consultant – Neglect clarification of how consultant intends to operate within the system – Fail to clarify specific expectations of consultant’s role and behavior – Fail to accurately identify the organization’s problem – Fail to explain to consultant what organization’s resource limitations are.

Potential Pitfalls in Entry Stage (3) • A key issue in this stage (for both potential consultant and consultee) is to allow sufficient time for discussion and mutual understanding • Effective questioning by consultant is very important .

Phase Two of Entry Stage Contracting • An oral or written agreement specifying • • expectations and obligations of consultant and consultee. including how much time each will invest. what ground rules will be followed. Psychological aspects (expectations) important. and payment-related details. and may differ for different “parts” of consultee system . Written contract is ―safest‖. too. collaborative services more likely to be informal. but may not be expressed or written.

but don’t stay in it all the time!) Seek out those connected to the consultation Have specified time schedule Adapt to organization’s schedule as possible Have contact person give advance notice of your coming .Phase Three of Entry Stage Physical Entry • Begins when consultant first comes into contact • • • • • with members of the organization What will be the consultant’s work site within the organization? (office can be advantage.

Look to be judged by deeds rather than words. Avoid being perceived as ―trying too hard‖ to win them over.Phase Four of Entry Stage Psychological Entry • Refers to gradual acceptance of consultant by • • • • • members of organization Awareness of both process and personal interactional patterns of organization are helpful Create as little stress as possible on members of organization (―fit in‖). though—be genuine Appropriate use of social/interpersonal influence .

connect to org. may enhance by sharing related experience—careful about ―war stories‖) . be credible. respect confidentiality. values) – Trustworthy (show understanding. use of power. approp.Social/Interpersonal Influence • The ―trick‖ is to impact the consultee(s) while maintaining a relationship among equals (people affected are more open to influence to the degree that they view the consultant as being: – Attractive (consultees see similarities. realistic) – Competent (expertise is perceived possession of knowledge of skills to solve a problem.

1957) 1. 4. . a ―fit‖ *Expert—consultant viewed by consultee as knowing more about the subject/problem *Referent—consultant viewed as similar. linked *Informational—information viewed as relevant 3. if don’t follow through with plan Reward—consultee views praise from consultant as rewarding. validating Legitimate—consultee views consultant’s attempt to help as appropriate to their role. 6.Bases of Power for Social Influence (French & Raven. Coercion—consultee is fearful of being confronted 2. 5.

Multicultural Aspects of Entry Process • Take into account cultural issues without • • • • • stereotyping Bring some culture-specific expertise Consultee may or may not explicitly address this area of concern. so be ready with own questions Comes back to communication and relationshipbuilding Assess own level of comfort re issues Specific subset of psychological entry .

) • YouTube video examples of consultation .Case Studies • Pages 65-66 of Dougherty book (5th ed.

2.Diagnostic Stage—Four Phases 1. 4. Gathering information Defining the problem Setting goals Generating possible interventions . 3.

Phase One of Diagnostic Stage Gathering Information • Many sources available—choice depends on situation. • Can be gathered by consultant. resources. or both—but this must be mutually agreed upon • Use of scanning (scoping out the ―big picture‖ before formal data gathering) . etc. consultee.

Documents and records Questionnaires and surveys Interviews Observation . 2. 4.Phase One of Diagnostic Stage Gathering Information (2) 1. 3.

motivation criteria . to be chosen based on: reasonability. workability. must prioritize them collaboratively May generate alternative definitions of problem.Phase Two of Diagnostic Stage Defining the Problem • Effects rest of consultative process • Involves analyzing data collected • Approach to analysis should be agreed upon ahead • • • of time Ideally involves collaborative approach If more than one problem identified.

3. 5. 4. obstacles .Phase Three of Diagnostic Stage Setting Goals • Central part of diagnostic process—don’t rush • Goal(s) selected should be: 1. Specific Verifiable (measurable somehow) Cost-effective Meaningful to those involved Realistic—as to resources. control. 2.

• together. represent a plan to achieve the goal(s) Assist consultees in this process via: – Brainstorming alternatives – Using prompts • People to assist • Places that might help • Things to help • Organizations to assist • Prepackaged programs available • Consultee resources .Phase Four of Diagnostic Stage Possible Interventions • Interventions—planned actions or activities that.