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AUTO-RECLOSING ON EHV LINES.

By

Y. k. Pandharipande.

AUTO-RECLOSING ON EHV LINES

80 90% of Over-head Line faults are transient faults. Hence restoration of line can be quickly done by Autoreclosing C.B. after allowing sufficient de-ionisation time, following tripping. In case of EHV lines, Auto-reclosing enhances system stability and maintain synchronism. Auto-reclosing is not applied to cable feeders or mixed cable plus over-head feeders where faults are likely to be permanent.

AUTO-RECLOSING ON EHV LINES


POWER ANGLE CURVE SHOWING EFFECT OF AUTORECLOSING ON EARTH FAULTS

If Angle 2 at which C.B. Recloses is such that Area 2 is greater than Area 1, synchronism between the two systems is maintained.

AUTO-RECLOSING ON EHV LINES


TYPICAL AUTO-RECLOSE SCHEME LOGIC (SIMPLIFIED)

LEGEND: D.T. - Dead Timer, R.T. - Reclaim Timer I/L Inter-lock (Permissive), L/O - Lock-out

AUTO-RECLOSING ON EHV LINES


DEAD TIME - time between fault arc extinguished and C.B. Contact remake. INFLUENCING FACTORS 1. SYSTEM STABILITY / SYNCHRONISM

Depends upon permissible system disturbance time upto which system stability can be maintained, based on Power Angle Curve. 3 Phase tripping may cause loss of synchronism requiring rapid reclosure.

2. C.B. CHARACTERISTIC

C.B. Duty Cycle C.B. Trip Time Mechanism Reset Time C.B. Closing Time

AUTO-RECLOSING ON EHV LINES


DEAD TIME INFLUENCING FACTORS 3. DE-IONISATION OF FAULT ARC De-ionisation time depends upon:

System Voltage Weather Conditions Capacitive Coupling with Healthy Phase(s)

TYPICAL MINIMUM DE-IONISATION TIME 66 KV - 0.10 S. 132 KV 0.17 S. 220 KV 0.28 S 400 KV 0.50 S. (REF. P.R.A.G. of Areva)

AUTO-RECLOSING ON EHV LINES


RECLAIM TIME:

Time following successful auto-reclosing (measured from the instant A/R contact makes), which should elapse, before subsequent A/R sequence is initiated in the event of recurrence of fault.

INFLUENCING FACTORS
1. DUTY CYCLE OF BREAKER Typical Duty Cycle = O C O 3 Minutes C O C

2. RESETTING OF CLOSING MECHANISM TO BE READY FOR SUBSEQUENT RECLOSURE

Governed by spring charging time in case of motor wound spring charge breakers.

Time for Air Pressure to recover in case of ABCBs


Time for SF6 reservoir to recharge in case of SF6 Breakers.

AUTO-RECLOSING ON EHV LINES

NUMBER OF SHOTS High speed A/R on EHV Line is usually Single Shot. Multi-shot Reclosure is not attempted on EHV Lines due to:

1. C.B. / System limitations 2. Low Probability of Semi-permanent faults. MODE OF RECLOSURE (3-PHASE or 1-PHASE)

1. 3-PHASE TRIP AND RECLOSURE

Normally applied for 3 Phase Gang Operated Breakers. Loss of Synchronism likely, requiring synchro-check before reclosure. Dead time can be low due to comparatively shorter de-ionisation time.

AUTO-RECLOSING ON EHV LINES


2. 1-PHASE TRIP AND RECLOSURE (ON 1-PHASE FAULT)

Feasible if C.B. has separate closing and tripping mechanism and Closing / Tripping Coils for each phase. No Loss of Synchronism (Synchronising power can be exchanged through healthy phases). Longer de-ionising time requiring long dead time (effect of healthy phase coupling) Mal-operation of E/F relay on healthy circuit likely in case of double circuit lines, in multiple neutral earthed systems. Pole Discripancy time should be set to over-ride dead time.

AUTO-RECLOSING ON EHV LINES


3-PHASING AUTO-RECLOSING SupplimentedbyDeadLine charging&CheckSynchronisingatConsegutiveEnds.

EndAhavingDLCfeaturechecksforDeadLine/LiveBus Condition, through U/V Relays 27L / 27B & close CB 52A. Synchronism is checked between I/C Line and Bus voltage at end B, before reclosing CB 52B. DLC Feature applied at line end having weak source.

AUTO-RECLOSING ON EHV LINES


PROTECTION CHARACTERISTIC FOR HIGH SPEED RECLOSURE

Protection initiating A/R should be High Speed (such as Distance Zone1 / Aided trip, Pilot Wire Differential etc)

Simultaneous tripping at both ends is an essential pre-requisite to apply High Speed Reclosure. This requires Distance relays to be inter-locked through tele-protection channel to ensure simultaneous tripping for end section faults.
In case of 1-Phase Tripping & Reclosure, protection needs to be Phase Selective. If not, separate Phase Selectors (Over Current or Impedance type) have to be provided.

AUTO-RECLOSING ON EHV LINES


LOCK OUT If A/R is unsuccessful or not likely to be successful, C.B. is tripped and Auto-reclosing is blocked. CONDITIONS FOR LOCK OUT Fault cleared by time delayed backup protection (e.g. Distance Z2/Z3, IDMT O/C etc).

CB Inter-locks (such as Air pressure, Spring Charge Limit Switch etc) not permissive. Fault recurring during Reclaim Time. CB Switched On To Fault (Manual Closing) Tele-protection channel out of Service. Synchronism not regained indefinitely in case of 3 Phase trip & Reclosure. Auto-reclose Out of Service (Non-Auto Mode)