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Knowledge Management & Expert System Module-3

We are in a knowledge-base society!
• Most of our work is information based • Organizations compete on the basis of knowledge • Products and services available in the society are increasingly complex • Life-long learning is inevitable needed

Why KM in knowledge-base business economy?
• Foster innovation
– By encouraging the free flow of ideas

• Improve customer service
– By streamlining response time

• Boost revenues
– By getting products and services to market faster

• Enhance employee retention rates
– By recognizing the value of employees’ knowledge and rewarding them for it

• Streamline operations and reduce costs
– By eliminating redundant or unnecessary processes

• Knowledge:
– Awareness and understanding of a set of information and the ways that information can be made useful to support a specific task or reach a decision

• Knowledge management system (KMS):
– Organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to create, store, share, and use the organization’s knowledge and experience

The role of IT in KM • Information technology. – KM is often facilitated by IT – IT provides solutions to KM – IT is a tool to increase the “efficiency” and “capability” of KM • IT. by itself is not KM • However. access of information. exchange and sharing of ideas . the dissemination. as a facilitator of KM • facilitates document management. data storage.

• Creating more values via IT Enhancing efficiency! Higher productivity! Knowledge .

to identify key technology focus areas where organization has competitive advantages • Market relevance . market-driven approach in driving the innovation and technology programme • Industry participation .The new strategic framework of IT • Focus .to closely involve the industry in defining the key focus areas and other stages of innovation and technology development .to adopt a demand-led.

to strengthen coordination among various technologyrelated institutions and the industry .• Leverage .applied R&D and commercialization of applied R&D deliverables • Better coordination .

Technology • • • • • • Digital entertainment VoIP Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) IPv6 The regulation of SPAM IT Professionalization .

Access Workflow Designer .• Tools for capturing and using knowledge include: – Data mining and business intelligence – Enterprise resource planning tools. such as SAP – Groupware • Examples of specific KM products – IBM’s Lotus Notes. Domino – Microsoft’s Digital Dashboard. Web Store Technology.

hardware. procedures. data.Artificial Intelligence • Artificial intelligence (AI): ability of computers to mimic or duplicate the functions of the human brain • AI-based computer systems have many applications in different fields. and knowledge needed to develop computer systems and machines that demonstrate the characteristics of intelligence . such as: – – – – Medical diagnoses Exploration for natural resources Determining what is wrong with mechanical devices Assisting in designing and developing other computer systems • Artificial intelligence systems: people. software.

or feel objects – On a limited basis with machine-vision hardware and software • Process and manipulate symbols • Be creative and imaginative – Example: writing short stories • Use heuristics – Obtaining good solutions (rather than the optimal) through approximation . see.The Nature of Intelligence • Learn from experience and apply knowledge acquired from experience – Example: computerized AI chess software • • • • • Handle complex situations Solve problems when important information is missing Determine what is important React quickly and correctly to a new situation Understand visual images – Perceptive system: approximates the way humans hear.

similar to a human expert • Used in many business applications • Robotics.Expert Systems • Hardware and software that stores knowledge and makes inferences.Mechanical or computer devices that perform tasks requiring a high degree of precision or that are tedious or hazardous for humans • Contemporary robotics combines high-precision machine capabilities with sophisticated controlling software • Many applications of robotics exist today • Research into robots is continuing .

Justice Department to perform fingerprint analysis • Can be used in identifying people based on facial features • Can be used with robots to give these machines “sight” .S.Vision Systems • Hardware and software that permit computers to capture. store. and manipulate visual images and pictures • Used by the U.

such as English • Voice recognition involves converting sound waves into words .Natural Language Processing and Voice Recognition • Natural language processing: allows the computer to understand and react to statements and commands made in a “natural” language.

Learning Systems • Combination of software and hardware that allows the computer to change how it functions or reacts to situations based on feedback it receives • Learning systems software requires feedback on the results of actions or decisions • Feedback is used to alter what the system will do in the future .

Neural Networks • A program that is constructed of multiple artificial neurons which interact with one another and "learn" a model used to take intelligent action • Computer system that can simulate the functioning of a human brain • Ability to retrieve information even if some of the neural nodes fail • Fast modification of stored data as a result of new information • Ability to discover relationships and trends in large databases • Ability to solve complex problems for which all the information is not present .

such as: – Designing new products and systems – Developing innovative insurance products – Increasing the quality of healthcare – Determining credit limits for credit cards – Determining the best fertilizer mix to use on certain soils . to arrive at conclusions or make suggestions • Used in many fields for a variety of tasks.Expert Systems • Like human experts. computerized expert systems use heuristics. or rules of thumb.

When to Use Expert Systems • Develop an expert system if it can do any of the following: – Provide a high potential payoff or significantly reduce downside risk – Capture and preserve irreplaceable human expertise – Solve a problem that is not easily solved using traditional programming techniques – Develop a system more consistent than human experts – Provide expertise needed at a number of locations at the same time or in a hostile environment that is dangerous to human health – Provide expertise that is expensive or rare – Develop a solution faster than human experts can – Provide expertise needed for training and development to share the wisdom and experience of human experts with a large number of people .


implementation.Participants in Developing and Using Expert Systems • Domain expert: individual or group who has the expertise or knowledge one is trying to capture in the expert system • Knowledge engineer: individual who has training or experience in the design. development. and maintenance of an expert system • Knowledge user: individual or group who uses and benefits from the expert system .

home Catching cheats and terrorists – Gambling casinos diagnosis.• • • • Credit granting and loan • Plant layout and manufacturing analysis • Hospitals and medical facilities Stock picking – Probability of contracting diseases. aerospace equipment in products – Antilock braking system. • Shipping and marketing – television • Warehouse optimization – Prototype testing programs – Restocking. appointment scheduling Applications • Budgeting • • • • • • Help desks and assistance • Employee performance Games evaluation – Crossword puzzles Information management and • Virus detection retrieval – Uses neural network technology – Uses bots • Repair and maintenance AI and expert systems embedded – Telephone networks. location . lab analysis.

Online Analytical Processing • OLAP – Enables mangers and analysts to examine and manipulate large amounts of detailed and consolidated data from many perspectives – Done interactively in real time with rapid response .

OLAP Analytical Operations • Consolidation – Aggregation of data • Drill-down – Display detail data that comprise consolidated data • Slicing and Dicing – Ability to look at the database from different viewpoints .

trends. and correlations hidden in the data that can help a company improve its business performance • Use regression. decision tree. cluster analysis.Data Mining • Main purpose is to provide decision support to managers and business professionals through knowledge discovery • Analyzes vast store of historical business data • Tries to discover patterns. or market basket analysis . neural network.

Data Visualization Systems • DVS – DSS that represents complex data using interactive three-dimensional graphical forms such as charts. and organize data while it is in its graphical form . and maps – DVS tools help users to interactively sort. graphs. combine. subdivide.

including attributes or variables for the units of information Visual Data Mining (VDM) is a new approach for exploring very large data sets. meaning "information that has been abstracted in some schematic form.• Data visualization is the study of the visual representation of data. combining traditional mining methods and information visualization techniques. .

Visualization for Data Mining • Huge amounts of information • Limited display capacity of output devices .

Why Visual Data Mining 29 .

VDM takes advantage of both. • The power of automatic calculations. and • The capabilities of human processing. – Human perception offers phenomenal abilities to extract structures from pictures .

– Combination of the results. • Loose integration • Full integration – Automated mining and visualization methods applied in parallel.Levels of VDM • No or very limited integration – Corresponds to the application of either traditional information. – The result of one step can be used as input for another step. – Visualization and automated mining methods are applied sequentially. 31 . visualization or automated data mining methods.

Interaction allows user to guide visualization system step by step to display/ clarify what is of interest.Adaptive Data Visualization System Properties • Interactive and adaptive • Correctness • Maximizing Domain knowledge integration achieved by • choosing proper association function • transformation functions during visualization process. Interactive/ Provide mechanism for views to adjust or change transformation functions during visualization process. .

Methods of Data Visualization Different methods are available for visualization of data based on type of data Data can be • Univariate • Bivariate • Multivariate 33 .

Univariate data • Measurement of single quantitative variable • Characterize distribution • Represented using following methods – Histogram – Pie Chart 34 .

Histogram 35 .

Pie Chart 36 .

Bivariate Data • Constitutes of paired samples of two quantitative variables • Variables are related • Represented using following methods – Scatter plots – Line graphs 37 .

Scatter plots 38 .

Line graphs 39 .

Multivariate Data • Multi dimensional representation of multivariate data • Represented using following methods – Icon based methods – Pixel based methods – Dynamic parallel coordinate system 40 .

Icon based Methods 41 .

– The values of each attribute are presented in separate sub windows.Pixel Based Methods • Approach: – Each attribute value is represented by one colored pixel (the value ranges of the attributes are mapped to a fixed color map). • Examples: – Dense Pixel Displays 42 .

Dense Pixel Display Approach: – Each attribute value is represented by one colored pixel (the value ranges of the attributes are mapped to a fixed color map). 43 . – Different attributes are presented in separate sub windows.