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Causes Of Unbalance
Uneven distribution of mass of rotor. Dirt accumulation on fan rotors. Rotor eccentricity Roller deflection, especially in paper machines Machining errors Uneven erosion and corrosion of pump impellers Missing balance weights

Effects Of Unbalance
High vibration due to centrifugal force. Excessive load on bearings. Premature bearing failure High noise Unbalance to be corrected after correcting all other inaccuracies.

Types Of Unbalance
Static Unbalance Couple Unbalance Overhang Rotor Unbalance

Static Unbalance

Highest horizontal vibration Amplitude increases as square of speed. Dominant frequency at 1x rpm Horizontal to vertical phase difference 900 on the same bearing housing


Can be corrected by one balance weight

Couple Unbalance

High horizontal & some times axial vibration Dominant frequency at 1x RPM 1800 phase difference between both bearings horizontal as well as vertical direction.


It requires two plane balancing

Overhung Rotor Unbalance

High horizontal & axial vibration Dominant frequency at 1x RPM Axial readings will be in phase but radial phase readings might be unsteady.

Overhung rotors might be having both static and couple unbalance and each of which requires correction.

Balancing theory

Balancing needed:

Symptom 1:
excessive RMS vibration (yellow)
Vibration measuring points

Balancing theory

Vibration spectrum

Balancing needed:

Symptom 2:
Dominant spectrum line at 1X

1X Unbalance 1X: cpm = RPM Hz = RPM 60

Balancing theory

Before you balance: Check foundation Tighten bolts

Align the machine

Clean rotor Measure vibration again

Unbalance Signature

Types of Balancing Procedure

1. Three point method or 4 run method

2. Phase Method

Balancing theory

The 4 run method is

very safe.
All reference points are on the rotor. Disadvantage: it takes more time
240 120

Single plane , 4 runs

Run 1: V0, no trial mass Run 2: V1, trial mass at 0 Run 3: V2, trial mass at 120 Run 4: V3, trial mass at 240 Conditions:
240 120

Same RPM at every run

Same trial mass at every run

Balancing theory

Find position and weight

V0 V1
Angles Weight

Method 2: 2 runs, with trial mass at 0 on run 2.

Trigger pulse Balancing with RPM measurement and synchronised vibration measurement

Balancing theory

Synchronised measurement:
Sampling starts on a trigger pulse, supplied by a proximity switch or tachometer probe. Each measurement starts in the same rotor position.

1485 rpm
Reflecting tape

RPM measurement:
Time for one rotation = 60 seconds / RPM Tacho probe

Balancing theory

Weakest direction

The tacho probe is part of your reference system.

Max. value

The second part is the weakest direction of the machine structure.

Time Tm

Do not move the tacho probe between measurements.

Trigger pulse

Balancing theory

Weak direction


All angles referred to a common 0 position

Balancing theory

Conditions for 2 run balancing:

Average of 5 measurements Stable RPM Stable trigger position

Balancing with phase information

Reference point

Phase is a measure of relative time difference between two sine waves

Balancing theory

Balancing Standard
ISO 1940/1 Balance quality requirements of Rigid Rotors