Sociological research

 .Research .the process of systematic observation  The basic goal of sociological research is to understand the social world in its many forms.

Principles of social research Objectivity  Fairness  Lack of prejudice  Ethical enquiry  Employ stated method  .

 Sociologists also often use qualitative methods .such as focused interviews. group discussions.  .to investigate social processes.to investigate the structure of a social process or describe patterns in social relationships. etc .  Sociologists often use quantitative methods -such as statistical data .The two main types of social research and analysis are quantitative methods and qualitative methods.

Key Research Methods in Sociology Sociologists use four major approaches to research:  literature review  experiments  Surveys and field observation  data classification and Analysis of existing data  .

library references. newspapers. and any other published materials.Literature review    A literature search involves reviewing all readily available materials. This is a very inexpensive method of gathering information. magazines. Literature searches over the web are the fastest. These materials can include internal company information. while library literature searches can take between one and eight weeks –literature review – official and unofficial documents. . publication etc. company literature. relevant trade publications. although it often does not yield timely information. on-line data bases. annual reports.

such as a laboratory or classroom. to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. . an experiment is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question.Experiment    An experiment is research that is carried out in a situation. and measures the dependent variable before and after the change in the independent variable. the researcher changes or manipulates the independent variable. In an experiment. In the scientific method. that is under the control of the researcher. tries to keep everything else constant.

then give them the scale again to see if their attitudes had changed. show them the movie. The experiment is a cornerstone in the empirical approach to acquiring deeper knowledge about the physical world .Experiments    Suppose. that a researcher wanted to find out if seeing a movie advocating tolerance would reduce people’s levels of racial prejudice. there would be evidence both of correlation between seeing the movie and prejudice score and of correct time order. The researcher could give a group of people a questionnaire measuring prejudice. for example. If they had.

Field survey  Survey research. which is the most widely used type of research design in sociology. the variables are constructed from people’s responses to the survey questions. In survey research. Survey research is any research in which a population or a sample of a population is asked a set of questions that are worked out in advance by the researcher. .

Data classification and Analysis Documentation  Classification  Appropriate analytical Tools  – Statistical Tools – Observation tools .

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