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# Finite Element

Analysis
MEEN 5330
Dustin Grant
Kamlesh Borgaonkar
Rupakkumar Patel
Introduction

What is finite element analysis, FEA?

What is FEA used for?

1D Rod Elements, 2D Trusses
Basic Concepts

Equilibrium

Boundary conditions
f

i
P
0
~
,
= +
i j ji
f o
Development of Theory

Rayleigh-Ritz Method
Total potential energy equation

Galerkins Method
1D Rod Elements
To understand and solve 2D and 3D
problems we must understand basic of 1D
problems.
Analysis of 1D rod elements can be done
using Rayleigh-Ritz and Galerkins method
To solve FEA problems same are modified
in the Potential-Energy approach and
Galerkins approach
1D Rod Elements
force f , traction force T, point load P
i
Body force: distributed force , acting on
every elemental volume of body i.e. self
weight of body.
Traction force: distributed force , acting on
surface of body i.e. frictional resistance,
viscous drag and surface shear
Point load: a force acting on any single
point of element
1D Rod Elements
Element strain energy

Element stiffness matrix

Element traction-force vector
q k q U
e T
e

] [
2
1
=
(

=
1 1
1 1
] [
e
e e e
l
A E
k
)
`

=
1
1
2
f l A
f
e e e

)
`

=
1
1
2
e e
Tl
T

Element -1 Element-2
Example 1D Rod Elements
Example 1
Problem statement: (Problem 3.1 from Chandrupatla and Belegundas
book)
Consider the bar in Fig.1, determine the following by hand calculation:
1) Displacement at point P 2) Strain and stress
3) Element stiffness matrix 4) strain energy in element
2
1.2
e
A in =
6
30 10 E psi =
1
0.02 q in =
2
0.025 q in =
Given:
Solution:
1) Displacement (q) at point P
We have
1
2 1
2
( ) 1
( )
2
(20 15) 1 0.25
(23 15)
x x
x x

= =

Now linear shape functions N
1
( c ) and N
2
( c ) are given by
1
1
( ) 0.375
2
N

= = And
2
1
( ) 0.625
2
N

+
= =

2D Truss
2 DOF

Transformations

Modified Stiffness Matrix

Methods of Solving
2D Truss

Transformation Matrix
Direction Cosines
(

=
m l
m l
L
0 0
0 0
] [
( ) ( )
2
1 2
2
1 2
y y x x l
e
+ =
e
l
x x
l
1 2
cos

= = u
e
l
y y
m
1 2
sin

= = u

2D Truss

Element Stiffness Matrix
(
(
(
(
(

=
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
] [
m lm m lm
lm l lm l
m lm m lm
lm l lm l
l
A E
k
e
e e
e
Methods of Solving

Elimination Approach
Eliminate Constraints

Penalty Approach
Will not discuss Today
Elimination Method
Set defection at the constraint to equal
zero
Elimination Method
Modified Equation
DOFs 1,2,4,7,8 equal to zero
2D Truss

Element Stresses

Element Reaction Forces

| |q m l m l
l
E
e
e

= o
| |Q K R

=
2D Truss

Development of Tables

Coordinate Table
Connectivity Table
Direction Cosines Table
2D Truss
Coordinate Table
2D Truss
Connectivity Table
2D Truss
Direction Cosines Table
( ) ( )
2
1 2
2
1 2
y y x x l
e
+ =
e
l
x x
l
1 2
cos

= = u
e
l
y y
m
1 2
sin

= = u
Example 2D Truss
MATLAB Program TRUSS2D.M
3D Truss Stiffness Matrix
3D Transformation Matrix
Direction Cosines
(

=
n m l
n m l
L
0 0 0
0 0 0
] [
( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 2
2
1 2
2
1 2
z z y y x x l
e
+ + =
e
l
x x
l
1 2
cos

= = u
e
l
y y
m
1 2
cos

= = |
e
l
z z
n
1 2
cos

= =

3D Truss Stiffness Matrix
3D Stiffness Matrix
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
] [
n mn ln n mn ln
mn m lm mn m lm
ln lm l ln lm l
n mn ln n mn ln
mn m lm mn m lm
ln lm l ln lm l
l
A E
k
e
e e
e
Conclusion

Good at Hand Calculations, Powerful
when applied to computers

Only limitations are the computer
limitations
References
Homework