Chapter 16

Networking Fundamentals and the Internet

You Will Learn…

 

About the typical hardware components of a network How several popular network architectures manage data traffic How data is transmitted over several interconnected networks How communications layers and their protocols are used on a network

You Will Learn…

About many of the popular applications used on a network How to connect to a network using a modem and a phone line About the Internet and how to support PCs connected to the Internet

An Overview of Networking 16    A means of connecting computers together so they can share data (files and programs) and resources (printers and modems) Network hardware and network software Terminology • • • • Node Packet or frame Header Trailer .

The OSI Layer Network Model 16  A seven-layer model of communications supported by a network. layers are responsible for: • Disassembling data into segments to be assigned to separate packets • Later reassembling packets into contiguous data • Passing packets to and receiving packets from the network media or cabling  Refers to software and firmware only .


Seven Layers of the OSI Model 16  Application layer • Interfaces with the user or application using the network  Presentation layer • Compresses and decompresses data and interfaces with the application layer and the session layer  Session layer • Makes and manages a connection between two nodes of the network continued .

Seven Layers of the OSI Model 16  Transport layer • Verifies data and requests a resend when the data is corrupted   Network layer • Routs packets Data-link layer • Disassembles packets and reassembles data into packets  Physical layer • Interfaces with the network media (cabling) .

Data Frames 16 .

Network Architectures 16  Most popular physical network architectures • Ethernet • Token Ring • Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)  Relatively new type of network • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)  Very fast  Works well over both short and long distances .

Networks 16  Basic differentiating characteristics • How computers are logically connected • How traffic is controlled  Network types • LAN • WAN • Internetwork .

not dedicated network devices.Ethernet 16     Most popular network topology Configured as either a bus or a star A passive network (the computers. drive the signals over the network) Contention-based system (each computer contends for the opportunity to transmit on the network) .

Ethernet 16 .

Ethernet 16  Uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) • Carrier sense  Computer must sense that network is free to handle its transmission before initiating a signal • Multiple access  Many computers use the same network • Collision detection  Each computer must detect and manage collisions .

Ethernet Cabling Systems 16   Can use any one of six cabling systems Two most popular • 10BaseT • 10Base2 (Thinnet) .



10BaseT Networks 16 .

Thinnet Networks 16 .


Token Ring 16  Physical star but a logical ring • Stations are connected to a centralized multistation access unit (MAU) in a star formation  Compared with Ethernet: • More robust and reliable • More complex and expensive • More difficult to maintain  Can use UTP or STP cables that have 2 twisted pairs for a total of 4 wires in the cable .

16 Connecting Components on a Token Ring .

it controls the channel until its message is sent .16  Communication on a Token Ring Controlled by a token • A small frame that constantly travels around the ring in only one direction • When a station seizes the token.

making it both a logical and physical ring Often used as a backbone network (links several networks together) Often uses fiber-optic cabling .FDDI 16    Does not require a centralized hub.

FDDI 16 .



Summary of Network Architecture

Networking Hardware

Some common components
• Network interface card (NIC)
 Provides a PC with direct connection to network

• Hubs
 Provide centralized location for nodes to connect on a star network

• Bridges, routers, and gateways
 Connect one network to another

upper memory addresses .Network Interface Card (NIC) 16   A network adapter board that plugs into a computer’s system board and provides a port on the back of the card to connect a PC to a network Requires an IRQ. an I/O address. for DOS and Windows 9x real mode. and.


Network Card Communication 16 .

Combo Card 16 .

Ethernet.. or fiberoptic cable) Type of I/O bus you are attaching the card to (e.. Token Ring.. or a proprietary network standard) Type of media you are using (e. PCI or ISA)   .g.g. coaxial. FDDI.g. shielded twisted-pair.16  Considerations when Selecting a Network Card Type of network you are attaching to (e.

Bridges. and Gateways 16   Devices used to connect networks and network segments to each other Main reasons for internetworking • Extend geographical area past what a single LAN can support • Decrease traffic on a single LAN by dividing the LAN into more than one network . Routers.

and Gateways 16  Bridge • Hardware device. coupled with software at the data-link layer. used to connect similar networks and network segments  Router • Transfers a packet to other networks only when the packet is addressed to a station outside its network  Gateway • Device or process that connects networks with different protocols . Routers.Bridges.

and Eudora by QUALCOMM . and Microsoft Windows NT • Third-party add-on software can provide top layers  Examples: Netscape Communicator. NetWare by Novell.Networking Software Overview 16  Each layer in the OSI model uses a different protocol • Firmware on network cards controls the two lowest layers (physical and data-link) • OS managing the network controls most layers  Best known: UNIX. Chameleon by NetManage.

Networking Software Overview .

Network Protocol 16  Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) • A common way PCs with modems can connect to an internet  TCP/IP • Supports the internet  IPX/SPX protocol • Used by Novell NetWare for LANs .

Network Protocol 16  NetBEUI protocol • Proprietary Microsoft networking protocol used only by Windows-based systems. and limited to LANs because it does not support routing  Protocols to communicate with their counterpart services on the receiving node of the network • Examples: SMTP. FTP . HTTP.

Network Services 16        Web browsers Chat rooms E-mail FTP Telnet Print services Network drive .

Two Network Configurations 16  Peer-to-peer network • Users at each workstation can use shared printers and files on each others’ computers • Services are often limited to FTP. or server. print services. on the network that serves the other computers on the network . and network drives  Dedicated-server network • Has at least one computer.

Peer-to-Peer Network 16 .

Dedicated-Server Network 16 .

Token Ring. or other design) • Direct cable connect (serial or parallel port) • Dial-up networking (modem and phone lines)   Installing a network card Supporting PCs on a network .16  Networking with Windows 9x and Windows NT Workstation Methods of connecting to network • Network card (Ethernet.

Dial-Up Networking (DUN) 16   Allows a PC to remotely connect to a network through a phone line Uses PPP to send packets of data over phone lines .

How DUN Works 16 .

Creating a Dial-Up Connection 16 .

Creating a Dial-Up Connection 16 .

Creating a Dial-Up Connection 16 .

Creating a Dial-Up Connection 16 .

Dial-Up Adapter 16 .

Direct Cable Connection 16 .

Installing Network Adapters Using Windows 9x and Windows NT 16    Installing an NIC under Windows NT Installing an NIC under Windows 9x Using resources on a network .

16 Installing an NIC under Windows NT .

16 Installing an NIC under Windows NT .

16 Installing an NIC under Windows 9x .

Using Resources on a Network 16 .

Using Resources on a Network 16 .

Using Resources on a Network 16 .

Servicing PCs on a Network 16        Verify that the PC is network-ready Log off the network Save network files and parameters to disk Disconnect network cable and repair the PC Restore network configurations Reconnect PC to the network Verify that network resources are available to the PC .

Saving Network Files and Parameters to Disk Using DOS or Windows 95 16 .

PCs and the Internet 16  Internet • The worldwide collection of over a million hosts that can communicate with each other using TCP/IP • A web of interconnecting. yet independent. networks .

How the Internet Works 16 .

Connecting to the Internet 16  Most people use an Internet service provider (ISP) • Provides access to the Internet for a monthly fee • Provides online services .

IP Addresses 16  Internet Protocol (IP) address • A 32-bit “dotted-decimal” address consisting of four numbers separated by periods • Used to uniquely identify a device on a network that uses TCP/IP protocols  Divided into three classes based on number of possible IP addresses in each network within each class .

Classes of IP Addresses 16 .

Reserved IP Addresses 16 .


Static and Dynamic IP Addresses
Static IP address
• Permanently assigned to a workstation

Dynamic IP address
• An assigned IP address used for current session only • When session is terminated, IP address is returned to the list of available addresses

Domain Names

Unique, text-based name that identifies an Internet address Typical endings in the United States: .edu, .gov, .com, .org, .net Also include a country code

Domain Name Resolution

Services that track relationships between domain names and IP addresses
• Domain Name System or Domain Name Service (DNS) • Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS)

16  The Internet. and Subnets The many different protocols that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite How TCP/IP uses the IP address system  . Networks.

Routing Using TCP/IP 16   TCP/IP uses routers to transfer packets of data (datagrams) from network to network in such a way that the overall transmission makes all these networks appear to be one large network Each protocol of the CCP/IP suite performs a single task .

The Suite of TCP/IP Protocols 16 .

16 IP Addresses and Physical Addresses .

How TCP/IP Routing Works 16 .

16 Default Gateways and Network Masks .

consisting of smaller separate networks. each assigned a logical network IP name  Subnet mask • Defines which portion of the host address within an IP address is being borrowed to define separate subnets within a network .Subnets and Subnet Masks 16  Subnet • Division of a large network.

Classless Addresses 16  Class C network addresses that a service provider owns and then subleases to small companies .

Classless Addresses 16 .

Routing Packets over Networks 16  Static routing • Routing tables don’t automatically change and must be manually edited  Dynamic routing • Routing tables are automatically updated as new information about routes becomes known and is shared by one router with another .

16 Configuring TCP/IP with Windows 9x .

16 Configuring TCP/IP with Windows 9x .

16 Configuring TCP/IP with Windows 9x .

16 Configuring TCP/IP with Windows NT .

16 Configuring TCP/IP with Windows NT .

Establishing Dial-up Connection to the Internet Using Windows 9x 16     Install and configure the modem Configure Dial-Up Adapter Configure Dial-Up Networking Install applications software to use the Internet .

16 Configuring Dial-Up Networking .

16 Configuring Dial-Up Networking .

presentation. and session layers Must be a program running on both nodes of the network for the service to work .Examples of Network Services 16   Most function at top three layers of the OSI model -.application.

Upper-Level Protocols 16  Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) • Used by the World Wide Web  File Transfer Protocol (FTP) • Used to transfer files  Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) • Used to transfer e-mail .

16 Uniform Resource Locator (URL) .

World Wide Web Browsers 16     Provide interface between Web sites and PCs Access a server by either its IP address or its domain name Use HTTP to request and pass documents on the Web Terminology • Hypertext • HTML .

File Transfer 16  File Transfer Protocol (FTP) • Used to transfer files between two computers using same or different OS  Can be initiated at a command prompt or using an ISP .

16 File Transfer from a Command Prompt .

File Transfer Using an ISP 16 .

File Transfer Using an ISP 16 .

Network Drive Map 16    One of most powerful and versatile methods of communicating over a network Uses network file service (NFS) software to make one PC appear to have a new hard drive Files and folders on host computer are available even to network-unaware DOS applications .

Preparing a Windows NT Host Computer for a Network Drive Map 16 .

Preparing a Windows NT Host Computer for a Network Drive Map 16 .

Preparing a Windows NT Host Computer for a Network Drive Map 16 .

Mapping the Network Drive from a Remote to a Host Computer 16 .

Mapping the Network Drive from a Remote to a Host Computer 16 .

Mapping the Network Drive from a Remote to a Host Computer 16 .

but you get the message “Unable to resolve hostname…” • After connecting. you get the error message “Unable to establish a compatible set of network protocols”  Problems with TCP/IP • Problems with TCP/IP configuration or suspected network problems (packet Internet groper or PING) .16  Network Troubleshooting Guidelines Windows 9x dial-up problems (modem problems) • Cannot make a connection • You can connect.

Chapter Summary 16   Fundamentals of the hardware and software that make up networks How to support a PC that interfaces with the Internet .

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