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# 2.

CONTROL STRATEGIES
OBJECTIVES Explain the basic open loop system Explain a basic closed loop system Explain the use of negative and possitive feedback

INTRODUCTION The function of a control system is to automatically regulate the output and keep it at the desired value. If the input (disturbance) changes, the output must respond to correct the change made by the input to maintain the set point value. 2.1. OPEN- LOOP SYSTEM (CONTROL)

An open loop system is a system with only the input and the output but no regulation / no control action at all.
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## Example of an open loop system

From the block diagram, the signal path from the input to the output is linear chain, not forming any closed loop so this is why is called an Open loop system Signal path is represented by arrows, which show the direction of information flow.

D U(t) PROCESS

Y(t)

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## 2.1.1. Feedforward Control (FFC)

Feedforward control is an example of an open loop control system that converts one or more conditions that can disturb the controlled variable outside of any feedback loop, in to corrective action to minimize deviation of the controlled variable (used for disturbance elimination) if:
The disturbance can be measured We know how the disturbances affect the output We know how the control signal affects the output
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U(t)
Fig:A

PROCESS

Y(t)

Disturbance (d)

MEASUREMENT

SP

CONTROLLER

U(t)

PROCESS

Y(t)

## Fig: B A,B : Typical Feedforward control systems control system

Example
Consider the example of the stirred tank heater. The objective is to control the temperature. The disturbance source is Ti.

T C

I/ P

## Feedforward control for a heated tank

Class exercise 1. Consider, an irrigation sprinkler system, programmed to turn on at set times during a rainy day. a) Identify all process variables. b) Could the process be considered as an open loop or closed loop? Explain. c) Construct the control mechanism of this process.

2. The distillation column is used to distill a binary mixture with x,y, z as the more volatile mole fraction compositions and B,D,R and F as molar flow rates. It is desired to control distillate composition y despite the disturbance in the feed flow rate F. all flow rates can be measured and manipulated with the exception of F, which can only be measured. Propose a Feedforward control method and sketch the schematic diagram.

2.2. CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM (CONTROL) A closed loop system is a system with a total control action / regulation around the entire process. The total control action is called the feedback control, the controlled variable is measured, and the measurement is fed to the controller, thus the controller receiving information about how a control action affects the output. Consider an example of a Mr. Manzini in the shower,

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## Fg 1.: Man in the shower.

Process variables

The disturbances = water from toilet flushing Manipulated variables = Temperature and the flow rate of the water Measured / controlled variables = Temperature of the water
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## Block diagram representation

Disturbance = flushing

## FINAL CONTROL ELEMENT

Water temperature PROCESS WFR, T

MEASUREMENT

CONTROLLER

Set point

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## 2.2.1. Feedback Control Loop (FBC)

In Feedback control, the measurement is fed to the controller. Thus the controller receives information about how a control action affects the output. Usually the measured variable is the variable we want to control
The basic elements of a feedback controller

The process variable (PV). I.e. the variable that is to be maintained under control. The set point (SP) which is the desired value of the process variable

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The error (e), which is a measure of the difference between the PV and the SP. The controller, whose control law and turning drive the corrective action . The final control element ( typically a valve) The manipulated variable (MV), the variable in the process to which the FCE is attached. Two dividends of feedback control loop 2.2.1.1. Negative feedback, this refers to the desirable situation where the corrective action taken by the controller forces the controlled variable towards the set point.
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## Error = reference feedback signal

2.2.1.2. Positive feedback occurs when the controller forces the controlled variables farther away from the set point. Error = reference + feedback signal

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EXAMPLE

Consider the example of the stirred tank heater. The objective is to control the temperature. The disturbance source is Ti.

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SOLUTION

T T TC Q

SP

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## REVISIT THE BLENDING PROCESS: A CONBINATION OF

FEEDBACK FEEDFORWARD CONTROL LOOPS
AT AC I/P

Mixture (A,B) W1 X1

Pure A W2 X2=1

I/P

AC AT W X xsp

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CLASS EXERCISE
Your bathtub at home is a control system that keeps the water level constant. A constant flow from the tap yields a constant water level, because the flow rate through the drain increases as the water level increases, and decreases as the water level decreases. After equilibrium has been reached, the level can be controlled by controlling the input flow rate. A low input flow rate yields a lower level, while a higher input flow rate yields a higher level. 1. Which control strategy is used in this process? 2. Sketch a control system that uses this principle to precisely control the fluid level in a tank. Show the intake and the drainage valves, the tank, any sensors and transmitters, and the interconnection of all components. 3. Draw a block diagram of the system, identifying the input and output signals of each block.
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