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Transmission line Equation Continues..

Lecture 3
By S. Naiman TE (Assistant Lecturer)

Previous lecture
Transmission media Transmission line equations

Today lecture Reflection of Waves on a TL

Impedance of Loaded TLs

From previous lecture we saw that the current and voltage of transmission line at any point can be considered as :

Since V (z) and I (z) are the solutions of second order differential (wave) equations, we must determine two unknowns, V+ and V -, which represent the amplitudes of steady-state voltage waves, traveling in the positive and in the negative direction, respectively. Therefore, we need two boundary conditions to determine these unknowns, by considering the effect of the load and of the generator connected to the transmission line.

Since the analysis of the transmission line normally starts from the load, it is very convenient to shift the reference of the space coordinate so that the zero reference is at the location of the load instead of the generator.

Low loss transmission line

Standing waves
When Zo=ZL all of the incident power is absorbed by the load. This is called matched line. When ZoZL, some of incident power is absorbed by the load and some is returned (reflected) to the source. This is called unmatched or mismatched line. With mismatch line there are two electromagnetic waves , traveling in opposite directions present on the line at the same time. This wave are called standing wave

Gets reflected and creates a returning wave with different amplitude and phase

These set up interference pattern called a standing wave

Reflection coefficient

ZR

VR IR

VO VO VO VO

ZO

If we rearrange the above equation we can have

V o Vo

Z R Zo Z R Zo

) R

If the load impedance doesn't match the characteristic impedance of the line , hence the ratio of reflected to transmitted voltage is referred as Reflection coefficient

V o Vo

Z R Zo Z R Zo

) R

Standing waves on a shorted line


The incident voltage and current waves are reflected back in opposite manner. The voltage is reflected back 180 degree reversed The current waves is reflected back the same Sum of inc and refl current waves is max at short Sum of inc and refl voltage waves is zero at short

Standing waves on a shorted line


current

Voltage

A short circuit line can be used as an inductor or a capacitor by choosing the correct length. Positive imaginary impedance looks like an inductor. Negative imaginary impedance looks like a capacitor.

V o Vo

Z R Zo Z R Zo

) R

Standing waves on a open line


Incident waves is reflected when it reach an open termination, none of the power is absorbed The incident voltage waves is reflected in exactly the same manner as if it were to cont to infinitely long line The current waves is reflected back 180 degree reversed from how it would continue.

Standing waves on a open line

Zin is purely imaginary

EXAMPLE:

f = 100 MHz

Find the reflection coefficient of the circuit.

What does this mean? 76% of the wave reflects at the load and is phase shifted by 60.8.

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) The ratio of the maximum voltage to the minimum voltage is the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) or (SWR)

SWR is a measure of the mismatch between the load impedance and the characteristic impedance of the transmission line.

Example
For a transmission line with incident voltage 5Vp and reflected voltage 3Vp, determine 1. The reflection coefficient 2. The SWR

The disadvantages of not having a matched (flat) transmission line can be summarized as follows:

1. 100% of the source incident power does not reach the load 2. The dielectric separating the two conductors can break down and cause corona as a result of the high-voltage standing wave ratio 3. Reflection and rereflections cause more power loss. 4. Reflections cause ghost images

5. Mismatches cause noise interference.

Bounce diagram
So far we have been able to find the voltage and current of a wave at both ends of the transmission line. An important graphical aid used for this purpose is the

bounce diagram (or reflection diagram)


Construct a bounce diagram for a lossless transmission line and use it to plot the voltage or current response anywhere on the line.

Bounce diagram.

Example. Consider an initially uncharged line in Figure below. At t = 0, the line is excited by a 64V voltage as shown. Assume that the velocity of propagation is 200m/s. Draw the voltage bounce diagram and use it to plot the voltages at the generator and the load end of the transmission line for at least four round trips.

Question
A signal generator whose frequency f = 100 MHz is connected to a coaxial cable whose characteristic impedance is 100 and whose length is 100 m. The velocity of propagation is equal to 2 x108 m / s . The transmission line is terminated with a load impedance of 50 . Calculate the impedance at a distance of 50 m from the load.

reThe reflected wave interferes with the transmitted wave to form a standing wave in the transmission line. The ratio of the maximum voltage of the standing wave tothe minimum is the Standing Wave Ratio: