Speaking to Persuade

Chapter 15
The Art of Public Speaking, 8th Ed.
By Stephen Lucas

Persuasive Speech
A speech designed to change or reinforce the audience’s beliefs or actions.

Informative and Persuasive Speech Differences:
Informative Speech
Speaker’s Intent Message’s Purpose Listener’s Effect Audience Choice

Persuasive Speech To change mind or action
To shape, reinforce, change audience responses To feel or think differently, to behave or act differently

To increase knowledge
To define, describe, explain, compare
To know more than before, to advance what is known

To willingly learn new knowledge

To change behavior by choice

etc. • Occurs where disagreement exists • Complex & challenging type of speech • Mental give-and-take with listeners – They assess speaker’s credibility. delivery. – They argue in minds with speaker .Persuasion is a psychological process. supporting materials.

Continuum of Audience Attitudes Disagree Neutral Agree .

but open to persuasion – BUT don’t exclude other listeners .Target Audience • ―Part of audience a speaker most wants to reach with his message‖ – Uncommitted – Those inclined to agree – Those inclined to disagree.

Persuasive speeches deal with three different questions: • Questions of fact • Questions of value • Questions of policy .

Question of Fact A question about the truth or falsity of an assertion. .

Questions of Fact. • Want audience to accept speaker’s view on facts of issue – Some can be answered w/certainty—some can’t • Different from an informative speech – Try to get audience to accept your view • Usually organized topically – Each main point is a reason why audience should agree with you .

II. Many geological signs indicate that a major earthquake may happen soon. There are three good reasons to believe that another major earthquake will hit California by the year 2025. Central Idea: Main Points: I. Experts agree that a major earthquake could hit California any day. III.Persuasive Speech--Question of Fact Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that another major earthquake will hit California by the year 2025. . California is long overdue for a major earthquake.

S. 10-20 .Begin here P.

and so forth of an idea or action. . morality.Question of Value A question about the worth. rightness.

– good or bad. – moral or immoral. • Judgments about: – right or wrong.Questions of Value. – ethical. • Justify position according to clear standards • Usually organized topically – 1st main point establishes standards – 2nd main point applies standards to topic . unethical.

” Central Idea: Main Points: II.Persuasive Speech--Question of Value Purpose: To persuade my audience that capital punishment is morally and legally wrong. Capital punishment violates both the Bible and the U. Capital punishment violates the biblical commandment “Thou shalt not kill. .” Capital punishment violates the constitutional ban on “cruel and unusual punishment. Constitution.S. I.

.Question of Policy A question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken.

practical – Motivate audience to take action . necessary.Questions of Policy • Deal with specific course of action • Most common in persuasive speeches • Two types – Passive agreement that policy is desirable.

Types of Speeches on Questions of Policy • Speech to gain passive agreement • Speech to gain immediate action .

Speeches to Gain Passive Agreement Convince the audience that a given policy is desirable without encouraging them to take action in support of the policy. .

• To persuade my audience that college scholarship athletes should receive a $200 monthly stipend for personal expenses. .Specific Purposes to Gain Passive Agreement • To persuade my audience that there should be tougher enforcement of laws to protect the victims of domestic abuse.

.Speeches to Gain Immediate Action Convince the audience to take action in support of a given policy.

• To persuade my audience to vote in the next presidential election. .Specific Purpose Statements to Gain Immediate Action • To persuade my audience to volunteer as literacy tutors.

Questions of Policy. cont. no new problems • Or show impractical & will create problems . • Must address three basic issues: – Need • Prove need for change • Prove NO need for change – Plan • Offer specific plan/policy to solve need – Practicality • Show plan is workable.

Solving the problem requires action by citizens and government alike. I. Central Idea: Main Points: II. Impure drinking water is a serious national problem that requires action by citizens and government alike. .Persuasive Speech--Question of Policy Purpose: To persuade my audience that America should act now to protect the quality of its drinking water. Impure drinking water has become a serious national problem.

Questions of Policy. cont. • Four effective patterns of organization – Problem-solution – Problem-cause-solution – Comparative advantages –Monroe’s motivated sequence .

Problem-Solution • Advocate a change in policy – 1st main point shows need for new policy – 2nd main point shows plan & practicality • Oppose a change in policy – 1st main point shows NO need for change – 2nd main point shows new policy won’t solve need and/or would create new problems .

The problem can be solved by business. and individual action. I.Problem-Solution Order Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that urgent action is needed to deal with the environmental problems created by disposable batteries. II. . government. Disposable batteries have become one of America’s most serious environmental dangers.

Problem-Cause-Solution • 1st main point shows existence of problem • 2nd main point analyzes causes of problem • 3rd main point presents solution to problem (This helps analyzes whether solution will get at causes or just control symptoms.) .

There are three major causes specific to college life for the growth of campus crime. Violent crime on college campuses is a serious problem. . II.Problem-Cause-Solution Order Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that colleges and universities should take stronger action to control campus crime. I. III. An effective solution must deal with all three major causes of the problem.

Comparative Advantages • Most effective when audience already agrees to need for new policy. • Each main point explains why this plan is preferable to other solution. .

. II. Unstaffed scientific missions provide many more practical benefits than staffed space flights. Unstaffed scientific missions are far less costly than staffed space flights.Comparative Advantages Order I.

Need: Gain attention of audience. Attention: 2. Visualization: Intensify desire for solution by visualizing it’s benefits. . 4. Action: Urge audience to take action in support of solution.Monroe’s Motivated Sequence 1. 5. Satisfaction: Satisfy need by providing solution to problem. 3. Make audience feel need for change.

V. I encourage you to enroll in a self-defense class. After taking a self-defense class. 389 for complete outline. Enrolling in a self-defense course is one way we can help. III. you will be much better able to deal with an emergency situtation. College students face many crime issues.) .Monroe’s Motivated Sequence I. IV. Have you ever felt unsafe walking home from the library on a dark evening? II. (See p.

Video 15-1: Demonstrating Practicality in Persuasive Speeches 15-2: Using ProblemCause-Solution Order 15-3: Using Monroe’s Motivated Sequence .

.Fact. or Policy? • Using lie detector tests as screening devices for jobs in private business is a violation of the employee’s right to privacy. • The use of lie detector tests for screening employees in private business should be banned by law. Value.

• If trunk release systems were standard equipment on all cars sold in the United States. or Policy? • A federal law should be passed requiring that trunk release systems be standard on all new cars sold in the United States. . Value. we could save a number of children’s lives each year.Fact.

The End .

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