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CMC

(COORDINATED MASTER CONTROL)


RS Rajput
Supdt.(C&I) NTPC Ltd Korba
August 2nd, 2012 Simulator, Korba

COORDINATED MASTER CONTROL


Coordinated Master Control system is an ultimate or highest level of automation of the power plant. CMC ensures proper coordination between boiler and turbine in order to attain enhanced unit level response, while maintaining the outputs of boiler, turbine and all major plant auxiliaries within safe operating limits. When operated in coordinated mode, most of the important control loops responds to the central command (Unit Master). A coordinated control system develops control signals simultaneously for the regulation of the boiler's firing rate and for the positioning of the turbine control valve.

Fundamentals:

How changes in boilers firing rate or turbine control valve position affects the throughput of the power plant.

Fundamentals:

If a step change is given in the turbine valve, this results in the transient change in load and steady state change in pressure. Whereas step change in the firing rate of boiler, results into a permanent steady state change in both load and pressure

It means that.. Permanent change in MW output can be obtained only by changing the boiler firing rate whereas change in turbine valve position will result in only momentary change in MW but permanent change in throttle pressure.

If parallel step change in both turbine control valve and boiler firing rate results in overshoots/undershoots in throttle pressure and MW curves.

The load reflects the initial change by the opening of the turbine valve but immediately starts to decay as the pressure decays until the effect of increased fuel and air is felt within the boiler. But in such case, if turbine valve lift is delayed by an amount equal to process delay in generation of steam pressure in the boiler (delay caused by coal feeders, pulverisers and Boiler Inertia), this will result into a constant throttle pressure without any decay. And there will not be any overshoots/undershoots in MW or throttle pressure curves.

CMC in action

Conclusion

Turbines control valves are fast responding components and Boiler is having transport lag and Thermal inertia and hence delayed respond with variation in command. Turbine will be able to meet MW demand or main steam pressure set point quickly by positioning its control valves. But Turbine will be able to maintain only one unit parameter MW or main steam pressure. The other has to be controlled by the Boiler.

CMC
The above philosophy has been utilized in the development of the CMC. CMC basically tries to ensure proper coordination between the slow Boiler and fast acting turbine control valves. It ensures that there isnt mismatch between boiler steam generation and electric load generated by turbinegenerator for long durations. Depending upon how CMC forms coordination between boiler and turbine, there are following four modes of operation:1. Boiler Follow Mode 2. Turbine Follow Mode 3. Co-ordinated Mode 4. Runback

CMC: Definitions
1) CMC: Basically to control internal parameters of

unit like (1) M S Pressure, (2) Load. Also to coordinate sensitive turbine and slow response of boiler auxiliaries, Good for grid and Unit stability. Both Boiler and Turbine controls are ON Auto. Boiler follows turbine. Turbine on Load controller & Boiler is ON Auto, controls pressure with BLI as feed forward. MW demands are met by Turbine and less importance to unit stability. Turbine follows Boiler. Boiler Master on manual control. Pressure control. Turbine maintains pressure by varying MSCV ,Unit load depends on steam output from boiler Best for unit stability
3) TFM:
2) BFM:

04)

RUNBACK mode:

Boiler controls give command in proportion to unit capability.

Turbine Pressure Control.


05) BOILER MASTER:

Basically a pressure controller


F/F Pr. Set point Actual pressure

Boiler Master
FEED FORWARD SIGNAL GNI OUTPUT - CMC BLI - B.F.M PRTD - T.F.M GET BYPASSED - in R/B

06) G N I :

Control tracking generator or set point control module. Generates increase/decrease rate.
Target to GNI:

CMC : Load dispatch center or unit- master [frequency corrected]


BFM : Boiler demand (BM O/P)

TFM
R/B

: Actual Load.
: Unit capability

07) UNIT CAPABILITY:

Capability to produce MW at that instant, UC signal depends on the number of auxiliaries in service and their contribution is expressed as MW signal, which is the max. they can support.

08) FGMO:

Free Governing mode of operation Introduces critical external parameter i.e. grid frequency to our control system. To ensure stability of grid it is necessary to have frequency regulation in CMC/EHC. But frequency is network parameter, which can not be controlled by few units in the network. Total disturbance in network will be passed on to the units having regulation by the many units do not have regulation.

BOILER FOLLOW MODE


1. Turbine on load control limit pressure. 2. Boiler master on Auto, controls throttle steam Pressure with steam flow as feed forward. Varying fuel I/P (firing rate) into the furnace. In this mode boiler has to supply the steam for whatever load has been set from Turbine desk. In this way if the throttle steam reaches a limit (10 kg below the set throttle steam Pr.) limit Pr. Engaged condition comes and load would be scarified to maintain/restore the throttle steam Pr.

Boiler follow mode gives more stability to the grid as MW demand are met by turbine quickly and lesser importance to unit stability, because the action by Turbine will be disturbing main stream pressure. Advantage of boiler follow mode: It provides maximum stability to network the storage capacity of the boiler is meaningfully used & the resulting changes are corrected by the fuel flow.

BOILER FOLLOW MODE

+
B

PR.

PID
FUEL FIRING DEVICE

PI

G MW F F U

MW SET PT.

SELECTION OF BOILER FOLLOW MODE ( BFM)


1. Put air control on auto (at least one FD fan) 2. Put feeders speed control on auto after varying fuel master(FM) output and making feeder speed controller error zero. 3. Vary Blr. Master O/P so that FM error becomes zero. Then put FM on auto.

4. Make throttle pr. Set point and actual pr. Difference zero.
5. Put BM on auto. If unit in turbine follow or coordinated mode change over to boiler follow occurs under following condition :turbine goes to manual because of any reason or operator action Pr CMC - Pr Lim > 60MW

TURBINE FOLLOW MODE: -

1. Boiler manually controlled 2. Turbine master On Auto -controls throttle steam Pre. (With steam flow as feed forward) by varying load. In T.F.M Pr. Controller comes into picture and the throttle Steam Pressure varies the opening of MSCV to maintain the set throttle steam Pre. TFM gives maximum stability to unit operations with slow response to grid requirements by initiating combustion controls first and turbine valves positioning after steam production.

TURBINE FOLLOW MODE

PR. SET PT.

+
PI

FUEL FIRING DEVICE

MW SET PT.

G N

+
PI

SELECTION OF TURBINE FOLLOW MODE ( TFM)

1. Boiler master on manual.


2. Throttle pressure deviation zero. 3. Turbine in auto. 4. Press. Turbine flow push button along with manual release on CMC desk and turbine goes to initial pressure mode from LMT mode by itself. 5. Now load set point can be changed by varying the boiler master manually.

CMC
CMC controls the Unit, treating boiler and turbine as a unit. Its aim is to generate desired MW O/P through coordinate regulation of boiler I/P & O/P (turbine I/P). Turbine must not increase load without taking firing /boiler inertia in consideration. CMC coordinates sensitive turbine & slow response boiler & Auxiliaries. IN CMC Boiler master is on Auto Turbine is on Auto Unit master - Receiving load demand from ALDC or Manually from desk. CMC sets the MW set point which will be pursued by boiler master by taking throttle pressure error as final trimming input signal.

CMC

contd..

Turbine will control the MW by taking MW error as input.


Th.pr. error will not be effecting the the MW till it is beyond limits. Boiler master will change the air & fuel to provide the desired steam. The response will be slow, compared to turbine response. This mode of operation gives maximum stability to the units with optimum response taking boiler & turbine as a unit.

CMC

contd..

In CMC, turbine maintains the load and boiler maintains the throttle pressure. On change in unit load demand / MW set point or Steam Pressure set point, first boiler firing changed for building up the desired energy level in the form of steam pressure and then signal is forwarded to the turbine for change of desired load. For coordinated mode both boiler and turbine should be in auto. This mode of operation provides facilities of Frequency influence, Runback, increase block, decrease block, run up and run down.

Runback Mode:
On tripping of any of the unit auxiliaries, the unit capability of generating full load is reduced and unit stability is threatened. In order to enhance the stability of unit on tripping of the auxiliaries, Run Back Action is initiated to maintain the critical parameters within safe limits, until the tripped equipment or its standby is brought back into operation. In Runback condition boiler load setpoint is reduced to Unit capability and hence unit load. And turbine is forced to initial pressure control mode (turbine will try to maintain steam pressure exactly at its setpoint).

CMC: Modes summary

CO-ORDINATED MASTER CONTROL: 200MW

CO-ORDINATED MASTER BLOCK DIAGRAM

COORDINATED MASTER CONTROL BOILER MASTER

COORDINATED MASTER CONTROL LOAD DEMAND

FIRING RATE CONTROL FUEL FLOW

FIRING RATE CONTROL AIR FLOW

COORDINATED MASTER CONTROL RUN BACK

Pressure Correction in CMC


Under normal operating conditions including small load (pressure) variation boiler and turbine are controlled independently as per set point from GNI. Any unbalance in power generation and power consumption due to frequency variation in FGMO , throttle pressure may increase or decrease which may cause dangerous condition in the boiler. If DP (Set throttle pre.- Actual throttle pre.) variation goes below set point ( - ve pressure deviation) , boiler storage capacity is used. However, any large variation in throttle pressure shall restrict the Turbine output till the Boiler has produced the additional output to match the increased demand. Similarly in case of +ve pressure deviation turbine output will increase.
MW Note:THROTTLE PRESSURE (DP) correction starts at +/- 1Kg and acts upto +/- 2Kg. It will add or subtract +/- 15 MW to the GNI output, thereby generating pressure corrected GNI output to EHC.

15MW 2 Kg - DP 15MW 1 Kg 1 Kg 2 Kg + DP

FREQUENCY INFULENCE ON CMC


K F
Min Unit Master Max Min n O/p + +

GNI P
+ --

Frequency & Pr. Connected GNI O/P to EHC

Adder

M I N
1.5 %

Pre. Correction
M A X

+ +Adder

Delay
Frequency connected GNI O/P Th.Pre. Set.Pre

MW

F/F Boiler master PI+D


20 MW

10 MW

3012 2992

Air master master

Fuel

COORDINATED MASTER CONTROL LOGIC DIAGRAM

TOTAL COAL FLOW

28.6% 85.7% B
TOTAL OIL FLOW
Y1

Y2

Y2 Y1

+
XP01 P

+
MIN

CV CORRECTED COAL FLOW

FUEL MASTER

+ -

X001

XM03

XP01

PT3 A B 3X1.01

X001

+
MW GENERATED

B/M O/P

AIR

CV Correction loop manipulates the coal flow measurement signal by increasing or decreasing it, to show less coal is going when coal quality is bad and more when coal is good the effect is limited to 85% to 100% of actual coal flow

CV CORRECTION LOOP
J

O2 Correction A section station and a setter for oxygen set point are provided to achieve the desired excess air. If variable O2 set point (SP) is selected, set point is generated by a function generator which is a function of max ( air flow SP and total air flow). In other mode SP is set from UCB. O2 in flue gas is compared with this SP and error is fed to PI controller, output of which is limited between 0.8 and 1.2% of total air flow. O2 Correction loop manipulates the total airflow measurement by increasing or decreasing O2 master to show less air/more air is flowing. This influence is limited to 30% of the total air flow

SELECTION OF CMC 1. Put air control on auto (at least one FD fan) 2. Put feeders speed control on auto after varying fuel master(FM) output and making feeder speed controller error zero. 3. Vary Blr. Master O/P so that FM error becomes zero. Then put FM on auto. 4. Make throttle pr. Set point and actual pr. Difference zero. 5. Put BM on auto. 6. Increase /decrease unit master output so that it becomes equal to actual load. (wait unit load set value and load value matches as shown in the CMC panel digital indicator). 7. Form TG desk put turbine control on auto. 8. Press coordinated push button along with manual release on CMC desk.

CMC summary: recap..