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# Dr.

Fida
Chapter (page# )
Frequency Response
Dr. Fida
From Text Book - Reading Assignment

Page# 416 to 432
# 446 to 449
# 464 to 474
Dr. Fida
Frequency-Response Analysis (FRA)

- Design Technique are not to replace the other techniques but
to supplement

- Root Locus technique gives information of the system
transient response in terms of the complex frequency variables
"s" and the location of poles-zeros.

- Laplace transform permit us to investigate s-plane location of
poles and zeros.
Dr. Fida
FRA means the steady-state response of a system to a sin input.

- Steady state-response of the system to a sinusoidal input.

- FR is mapping from the s-plane to the G(je)
- Input frequency is varied over a certain range & to study and
investigate the response of the system as the frequency varies.

- Magnitude and phase of the output signal differ from the input
sinusoidal signal.

- The difference is a function of the input frequency of sin input.

- Frequency response method allows us to concern ourselves
with the amplitude and phase characteristics of the system TF.
This is an advantage for making curves for the design analysis.
Input
Sinusoidal
Linear
System
Output Sinusoidal
different Magnitude
and Angle
Input
Sinusoidal
Linear
System
Output Sinusoidal
different Magnitude
and Angle
Dr. Fida

a) Simple tests.

b) Examine the G(s) when s=je and graphically displaying the
complex number G(je) as e varies.

c) Provide the designer with control of band-width of a system.

d) Provide magnitude and phase angle and readily represented
by graphical plots.
a) Indirect link between the frequency and time domain.

b) Direct correlation's between the frequency response and
corresponding transient response characteristics are some what
tedious.
Dr. Fida
Polar Plot
- A sinusoidal transfer function may be represented by two plots:

a) Magnitude vs Frequency.
b) Phase angle (in degrees) vs verses frequency (radians/sec).
1
1
+
=
s
) s ( G
e G(je)
0 1Z0
0

2 0.447Z-63.4
0

3 0.316Z-71.6
0

5 0.196Z-78.7
0

10 0.100Z-84.3
0

inf 0Z-90
0

) ( tan j
j
) j ( G e Z + e =
+ e
= e
1
1
1
1
1
G(je)
Frequency Response
Dr. Fida
plot polar :
s
) s ( G for plots response Frequency
2
1
+
=
Dr. Fida
Bode Plots/Diagrams or Logarithmic plots:

a) Logarithm of the magnitude of sinusoidal Transfer Function .

b) Logarithm of the phase angle.

Both are plotted against the frequency in logarithmic scale.

- Simplifies the determination of the graphical portrayal of the
frequency response.

- Advantages over the type of FR is the effects of adding real
pole and real zero to a transfer function is easy.

G(je) is log|G(je)| where the base of logarithm is 10. decibels
Dr. Fida
- Basic Factors of G(je)H(je)

1. Constant gain K

2. zeros and poles at origin (Integral and derivative factors (je)1)

3. Nonzero real zeros and poles ( First order factor (1+jeT)1)

Constant Gain K
dB = 20 log|K| |K|> 1 dB is positive
dB = 20 log|K| |K|< 1 dB is Negative
Dr. Fida
Zeros and Poles at the origin

Zero at origin dB = 20 log|je| = 20 log e

Straight line with slope of 20 dB per decade of frequency.

Pole at origin dB = 20 log|1/je| = -20 log e

Straight line with slope of -20 dB per decade of frequency.
Nonzero real poles and zeros

e > e e e
e s e
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
e
e
+ =
e
e
+
log log
0

j
log
j
log
i
i
/
i i
20 20
1 20 1 20
2 1
2

e >> e
e
e
e << e
~
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
e
e
+ =
log N
0

j
log dB
i
i
/ N
i
i
20
1 20
2
2
Dr. Fida
Bode plots for G(s) = s
Dr. Fida
Bode plots for G(s) = 1/s
Dr. Fida
Bode plots for G(s) = (s+a)
Dr. Fida
Bode plots for G(s) = (s+a)
Dr. Fida
Bode plots for G(s) = 1/(s+a)
Dr. Fida
Frequency Response Plots

Bode Plots Real Poles
Dr. Fida
Dr. Fida
) s )( s ( s
) s (
) s ( G
50 12
3 1000
+ +
+
=
) / s )( / s ( s
) / s (
50 1 12 1
3 1 5
+ +
+
=
dB ) ( log where ;
) / j )( / j ( j
) / j (
) j ( G 14 5 20
50 1 12 1
3 1
5 =
e + e + e
e +
= e
Dr. Fida
dB ) ( log where ;
) / j )( / j ( j
) / j (
) j ( G 14 5 20
50 1 12 1
3 1
5 =
e + e + e
e +
= e
14dB
Dr. Fida
) s )( s (
) s (
) s ( G Example
100 10
1 100
+ +
+
=
) / s )( / s (
) s ( .
100 1 10 1
1 1 0
+ +
+
=
) / j )( / j (
) j ( .
) j ( G
100 1 10 1
1 1 0
e + e +
e +
= e
Dr. Fida
) / j )( / j (
) j ( .
) j ( G
100 1 10 1
1 1 0
e + e +
e +
= e
Dr. Fida
) / j )( / j (
) j ( .
) j ( G
100 1 10 1
1 1 0
e + e +
e +
= e
Dr. Fida
1 1 1 1 1 1
dB Mag
Phase (deg)
0
20
40
60
-20
-40
-60
1 10 100 1000 0.1
2
) 100 / 1 (
) 10 / 1 ( 100
) (
s s
s
s G
+
+
=
dB Mag
Phase (deg)
0
20
40
60
-20
-40
-60
1 10 100 1000 0.1
Bode Plots
Example
-20db/dec
-40 db/dec
2
) 100 / 1 (
) 10 / 1 ( 100
) (
s s
s
s G
+
+
=
wlg
The completed plot is shown below.
Dr. Fida
1 1 1 1 1 1
dB Mag

Bode Plots
Example
Given:
3
3 2
80(1 )
( )
( ) (1 / 20)
jw
G s
jw jw
+
=
+
1 0.1 10 100
40
20
0
60
-20
.
20log80 = 38 dB
-60 dB/dec
-40 dB/dec
wlg
Dr. Fida
1 1 1 1 1 1
dB Mag
Phase (deg)
0
20
40
60
-20
-40
-60
1 10 100 1000 0.1
Bode Plots
-40 dB/dec
+ 20 dB/dec
Given:
Sort of a low
pass filter
Example
2
2
10(1 / 2)
( )
(1 0.025 )(1 / 500)
jw
G jw
j w jw

=
+ +
wlg
Dr. Fida
1 1 1 1 1 1
dB Mag
Phase (deg)
0
20
40
60
-20
-40
-60
1 10 100 1000 0.1
Bode Plots
2 2
2 2
) 1700 / 1 ( ) 2 / 1 (
) 100 / 1 ( ) 30 / 1 (
) (
jw jw
jw jw
jw G
+ +
+ +
=
-40 dB/dec
+ 40 dB/dec
Given:
Sort of a low
pass filter
Example
wlg
Dr. Fida
Bode Plots
Given:
) 1 1 . 0 ( ) (
) 1 01 . 0 )( 1 ( 64
) 10 ( ) (
) 1 01 . 0 )( 1 ( 640
) (
2 2
+
+ +
=
+
+ +
=
jw jw
jw jw
jw jw
jw jw
jw H
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000
0
20
40
-20
-40
dB mag
.
.
.
.
.
-40dB/dec
-20db/dec
-40dB/dec
-20dB/dec
Example
wlg
Dr. Fida
Step 1: Draw lines for each of the terms in the transfer function,
Dr. Fida
Step 2: Sum the individual lines, and get the straight line approximation,
Step 3: Draw the smooth curve (leaving 3dB at the corners),
Dr. Fida
Step 1: Draw lines for each of the terms in the transfer function
Dr. Fida
Dr. Fida
Calculate the phase shift for an RC circuit for each of the following frequencies, and then
plot the curve of the phase shift versus frequency. Assume f
c
=100Hz.
Example
Solution:
(a) f=1Hz (b) f=10Hz (c) f=100Hz (d) f=1000Hz (e) f=10,000Hz
|
|
.
|

\
|
= u

c
f
f
tan
1
0 1
573 0
100
1
.
Hz
Hz
tan ) a ( = |
.
|

\
|
= u

(b) u = -5.71
0
(c) u = -45
0
(d) u = -84.29
0
(e) u = -89.43
0
10
-5.71
0
-84.3
0
-90
0
-45
0
100
1k 10k
-89.4
0
Dr. Fida
Dr. Fida
Bode Plots
Design Problem: Design a G(s) that has the following Bode plot.
dB mag
0
20
40
0.1 1 10 100 1000
30 900
30 dB
+40 dB/dec
-40dB/dec
? ?
Example
wlg
Dr. Fida
Bode Plots
Procedure:

The two break frequencies need to be found. Recall:

#dec = log
10
[w
2
/w
1
]
Then we have:
(#dec)( 40dB/dec) = 30 dB
log
10
[w
1
/30] = 0.75

w
1
Also:
log
10
[w
2
/900]
(-40dB/dec) = - 30dB
This gives w
2

wlg
Dr. Fida
Bode Plots
Procedure:
2 2
2 2
(1 / 5.3) (1 / 5060)
( )
(1 / 30) (1 / 900)
s s
G s
s s
+ +
=
+ +
Clearing:
2 2
2 2
( 5.3) ( 5060)
( )
( 30) ( 900)
s s
G s
s s
+ +
=
+ +
Use Matlab and conv:
2 2 7
1 ( 10.6 28.1) 2 ( 10120 2.56 ) N s s N s s xe = + + = + +
N = conv(N1,N2)

N1 = [1 10.6 28.1] N2 = [1 10120 2.56e+7]
1 1.86e+3 2.58e+7 2.73e+8 7.222e+8
s
4
s
3
s
2
s
1
s
0

wlg
Dr. Fida
Bode Plots
Procedure: The final G(s) is given by;
Testing:
We now want to test the filter. We will check it at e = 5.3 rad/sec
And e = 164. At e = 5.3 the filter has a gain of 6 dB or about 2.
At e = 164 the filter has a gain of 30 dB or about 31.6.

We will check this out using MATLAB and particularly, Simulink.
) 29 . 7 022 . 5 189 . 9 1860 (
) 194 . 7 716 . 2 571 . 2 6 . 10130 (
) (
8 7 2 2 3 4
8 8 2 8 3 4
e s e s e s s
e s e s e s s
s G
+ + + +
+ + + +
=
wlg
Dr. Fida
Reverse Bode Plot
Required:
From the partial Bode diagram, determine the transfer function
(Assume a minimum phase system)
dB
e
20 db/dec
20 db/dec
-20 db/dec
30
1 110 850
68
Not to scale
wlg
Example 8
Dr. Fida
Reverse Bode Plot
Not to scale
100 dB
50 dB
0.5
-40 dB/dec
-20 dB/dec
40
10 dB
300
-20 dB/dec
-40 dB/dec
Required:
From the partial Bode diagram, determine the transfer function
(Assume a minimum phase system)
wlg
Example 9
Dr. Fida
Gain and Phase Margin

Let's say that we have the following system:

where K is a variable (constant) gain and G(s) is the plant under consideration.

The gain margin is defined as the change in open loop gain required to make the system
unstable. Systems with greater gain margins can withstand greater changes in system
parameters before becoming unstable in closed loop. Keep in mind that unity gain in
magnitude is equal to a gain of zero in dB.

The phase margin is defined as the change in open loop phase shift required to make a
closed loop system unstable.

The phase margin is the difference in phase between the phase curve and -180 deg at
the point corresponding to the frequency that gives us a gain of 0dB (the gain cross over
frequency, Wgc).

Likewise, the gain margin is the difference between the magnitude curve and 0dB at the
point corresponding to the frequency that gives us a phase of -180 deg (the phase cross
over frequency, Wpc).
Dr. Fida
Gain and phase for margins on the Bode diagrams
Dr. Fida
If the gain margin and phase margin are both positive the system will be stable.
Two relative stability indicators "Gain Margin" and "Phase Margin" are easily obtained
from Bode Plots. As 0 db corresponds to a magnitude of 1 the gain margin is the number
of db that |G(i)| is below 0 db at the phase frequency when the phase arg(G(i)= 180o
(Phase crossover). The phase margin in the number of degrees arg(G(i) is above -
180o frequency associated with a gain |G(i)|= 1 (0 db) (Gain crossover)

Dr. Fida
IGI in dB
Loge
0
-90
0
Loge
-270
0
Positive
gain margin

Positive
phase margin

-180
0
IGI in dB
Loge
0
-90
0
Loge
-270
0
Negative
gain margin

Negative
phase margin

-180
0
Stable System
Unstable System
Dr. Fida
Dr. Fida
Gain and Phase Margin
-180
Dr. Fida
Bode Plots

Bode plot is the representation of the magnitude and phase of G(j*w) (where the
frequency vector w contains only positive frequencies).
To see the Bode plot of a transfer function, you can use the MATLAB
bode
command.

For example,

bode(50,[1 9 30 40])

displays the Bode plots for the
transfer function:

50 / (s^3 + 9 s^2 + 30 s + 40)
Dr. Fida
We can find the gain and phase margins for a system directly, by using MATLAB.
Just enter the margin command.
This command returns the gain
and phase margins, the gain and
phase cross over frequencies, and
a graphical representation of these
on the Bode plot.

margin(50,[1 9 30 40])

Gain and Phase Margin
Dr. Fida
Appendix
Dr. Fida
Dr. Fida