Paleography, Tectonics and Climatic Conditions

Paleozoic Era
PRESENTED BY Jawad Bashir (Thunder).

Six major continents in paleozoic
• Six Major continents were present.These 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
continents are Baltica China Godowana Kazakistania Laurentia Siberia

In Cambrian age
• Gaundwana
The biggest super continent.

• Epeiric seas covered
much of the continents.

• The climate is Warm
and wet

• Most regions are ice

In Ordovician age
• Gondwana moves southward • Most world’s land mass was in Gondwana • Separation of western and central Europe • Great collisions • Major Glaciations

Early and late Ordovician

Climate in Ordovician Era
• The climate was warm and contains

• Favorable for marine life • Late Glaciations • Extinctions of marine organisms.

In Silurian age
• No major volcanic eruption. • But active plate movement. • Gondwana continues its drift. • Few continents converge at equator. • Formation of new super continent Laurasia. • Iapteus ocean remain open.

Early Silurian

Climate in Silurian age
• Starting of green house phase. • Shallow seas. • Higher carbon dioxide level. • Stable climate. • Later it gets little cool and moist. • Conditions favorable for larger animals.

• Active tectonic Phase. • Collision between • Formation of Cordilleran and ellesmore • Laurasian beginning
to move closer to Gondwana. Baltica and Laurentia.

In Devonian age

Climatic Conditions
• Early Devonian was
little warmer and moist.

• Formation of red beds
indicate the uniform global climatic conditions.

• Extinction of FrasnianFamennian.

In Carboniferous age
• Active mountain building. • Drifting of East

• Collision of Gondwana
and Laurasia.

• Formation of the Ural

• Formation of Pangea.

Climate in Carboniferous
• Early stages are warm. • Glaciations in Gondwana • Carbon dioxide level declining. • Carboniferous ice age. • Best age for land animals evolution

In Permian age
• Convergence of all
land mass in one super continent.

• Panthalassa was the
major ocean.

• Deserts are


• Sea levels drops.

Climatic conditions in Permian.
• The Earlier Permian was cold. • Middle Permian was hot and moist. • Swampy forests. • Great fluctuation in climate.

Cambrian Explosion
• The sudden appearance of multicellular phyla.

• Appearance of complex animals • Extinction of some single-cellular

Evidences for Cambrian explosion
• Body fossils. • Trace fossils. • Comparative anatomy. • Abundance of brachiopods.

Causes for Cambrian explosion
• Increase in oxygen levels. • Snowballs effects on earth. • Arms races between predators and

Theories for Cambrian explosion
• Darwin’s theory.

• Punctuated equilibrium theory

Evidences given by Darwin’s to support his theory
• The Dinosaurs evolution. • The Evolution of man • The great different in size and organs of

Loops in Darwin’s Theory
• The fossils record suggests that the size of insects
and the number of organs are same as today

• The DNA tests and Comparative anatomy suggest
that Humans are from different race not evolved from monkeys.

• Totally Rejects the Ideology of Creator. • God created all things without any model and

• It is He Who originated creation and then regenerates
it. That is very easy for Him. His is the most exalted designation in the heavens and the Earth. He is the Almighty, the All-Wise. (Surat ar-Rum, 27)

Quran response against Evolution

• Do they not see that Allah, Who created the heavens

and Earth, has the power to create the like of them, and has appointed fixed terms for them of which there is no doubt? But the wrongdoers still spurn anything but disbelief. (Surat al-Isra’, 99)

• Say; “Can any of your partner-deities bring creation out
of nothing and then regenerate it?” Say; “Allah brings creation out of nothing and then regenerates it. So how

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