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You are on page 1of 26

Systems

Why mathematical models of physical

systems needed?

Design of engineering systems by trying and

error versus design by using mathematical

models.

Physical laws such as Newtons second law

of motion is a mathematical model.

Mathematical model gives the mathematical

relationships relating the output of a system

to its input.

Mathematical Models of Physical

Systems (continued)

Control systems give desired output by controlling the

input. Therefore control systems and mathematical

modeling are inter-linked.

Models of Electrical Circuits

Resistance circuit: v(t) = i(t) R

Inductance circuit:

Models of Electrical Circuits

Capacitance circuit:

Open circuit:

Voltage source:

Current source:

Kirchhoff s voltage law:

The algebraic sum of voltages around any closed

loop in an electrical circuit is zero.

Kirchhoff s current law:

The algebraic sum of currents into any junction in an

electrical circuit is zero.

Example:

R-L series circuit, step voltage:

At the moment the switch is closed i=0.

E = step voltage

This is first order differential equation.

R-L series circuit, impulse voltage source:

R-C circuit step voltage source:

R-C circuit , impulse voltage source:

R-L-C series circuit, impulse voltage source:

Model of an RLC circuit:

Models of Mechanical Systems

Mechanical translational systems.

Newtons second law:

Device with friction (shock absorber):

B is damping coefficient.

Translational system to be defined is a spring (Hookes

law):

K is spring coefficient

Mechanical linear translational elements

Model of a mass-spring-damper system:

Note that linear physical systems are modeled by linear

differential equations for which linear components can be

added together. See example of a mass-spring-damper

system.

Simplified automobile suspension system:

Mechanical rotational systems.

Moment of inertia:

Viscous friction:

Torsion:

Model of a torsional pendulum (pendulum in clocks inside

glass dome);

Moment of inertia of pendulum bob denoted by J

Friction between the bob and air by B

Elastance of the brass suspension strip by K

Differential equations as mathematical models of physical

systems: similarity between mathematical models of

electrical circuits and models of simple mechanical

systems (see model of an RCL circuit and model of the

mass-spring-damper system).

Summary of through- and across-variables for physical

systems:

System

Variable

Through

Element

Integrated

Through

Variable

Variable Across

Element

Integrated

Across Variable

Electrical

Current, i Charge, q

Voltage

difference, v

21

Flux linkage,

21

Mechanical

Translational

Force, F

Translational

momentum, P

Velocity

difference, v

21

Displacement

difference, y

21

Mechanical

rotational

Torque, T

Angular

momentum, h

Angular velocity

difference, e

21

Angular

displacement

difference, u

21

Fluid

Fluid volumetric

rate of flow, Q

Volume, V

Pressure

difference, P

21

Pressure

momentum,

21

Thermal

Heat flow

rate, q

Heat energy,

H

Temperature

difference, t

21

Model of electromechanical systems.

Model of a servomotor:

Model of temperature-control system:

heat flow given by electric heater

heat flow via liquid entering tank

heat flow into liquid

heat flow via liquid leaving tank

heat flow (loss) via tank surface

H = specific heat of liquid

C = thermal capacity

R = thermal resistance

V = volume of liquid

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

t q t q t q t q t q

t q

t q

t q

t q

t q

s o l i e

s

o

l

i

e

+ + = +

=

=

=

=

=

R

T T

VHT

dt

dT

C

VHT

a

i

=

=

=

=

Models of transformers and gears:

Linearization: using Taylor series expansion and keep the first

one or two terms. Example:

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