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Pneumatic Conveying System, Introduction, Theory
Pneumatic Conveying Systems (PCS) Training
Organization Safety relating to PCS – included in the relevant sub-sections 3. Pressure Drops.ppt 2 . Pipeline 100825_Pneumatic Transport_10_Intro_Theory. Pneumatic Conveying definition. 4. technologies detailed in training DVD (general presentation) Theory Material. Presentation of the team and 3-day program (annex) Safety Safety during training. local information Safety during the visit on site (day 3) . 2. Terminology and key points.Introduction – Section contents 1.
Dust. Gypsum 100825_Pneumatic Transport_10_Intro_Theory.ppt 3 . kiln feed) Pulverised coal (hopper to burner with dosing.General What is a pneumatic conveying? Where can pneumatic transport be found? The pneumatic conveying consists in handling solid bulk material suspended in or forced by a gas stream through a dust proof piping We will find pneumatic transport systems where there is dry and solid bulk material Raw mix (mill to silo. burner) Cement (conveying to silo) Some additives: Ash.
Z-flap.ppt 4 .Technology developed during training Refer to the training course program: Screw-pump systems: Mainly based on FK pumps (H. M type) Overview of other technologies Pressure vessel systems Single or twin vessel systems Airlift system Miscellaneous Aero-slides Rotary valves + ejectors 100825_Pneumatic Transport_10_Intro_Theory.
ppt 5 .Theory .Contents DVD presentation (20 min) The material (characteristics to be considered) Pressure drop overview. pressure…) Terminology & key points Conveying pipeline tips Power estimation 100825_Pneumatic Transport_10_Intro_Theory. Conveying classification (phase types.
ppt 6 .Material Hardness “MOHS” scale 1 = Talc 2 = Gypsum 3 = Calcite 4 = Fluorine 5 = Apatite 6 = Feldspar 7 = Quartz 8 = Corundum 9 = Diamond Cement industry: raw material 3 to 4 Cement industry: cement = 6 to 7 100825_Pneumatic Transport_10_Intro_Theory.
ppt 7 .5) 100825_Pneumatic Transport_10_Intro_Theory.5) Pressure f(speed 2) Abrasion f(speed 3.Material Hardness “MOHS” scale Abrasion f (speed 3.
dry material better for pneumatic transport) (H2O weight / Dry material weight) % Inherent moisture + air high in moisture (dry air required) => build-up Particle size distribution and Specific Size Area diagram of cumulated rejects at x µm. BLAINE Bulk density kg/m3 theoretical.Material characteristics to be considered Moisture content (hot. & actual bulk density at inlet (aerated product?) Temperature Abrasion (see MOHS) 100825_Pneumatic Transport_10_Intro_Theory.ppt 8 .
Material characteristics to be considered Angle of repose Compressibility Ratio btw bulk material / packed tight material density Cohesion Fine powder = high cohesion Fluidisation aptitude of the product Aptitude to get the same behaviour as a fluid when mixed with gas Note: in a two-phase mix (gas + solid). experience is crucial for a proper understanding of behaviour. conveying velocity… 100825_Pneumatic Transport_10_Intro_Theory. friction… All these criteria will impact the conveying system design: choice of material to air ratio. loss of pressure. air-flow.ppt 9 .
Pressure Drop. Loading Ratio (material to air ratio) Biphasic flow (air + solids) higher P drop than air alone… see next slide Q (loading ratio) = kg material / kg air [or kg mat.ppt Dense phase 10 . / m3 air] = basic data Pressure drop = f (loading ratio) in a range 0-10 kg/kg Lean phase 100825_Pneumatic Transport_10_Intro_Theory.
waves-motion solid phase (plugs. low speed) 100825_Pneumatic Transport_10_Intro_Theory. continuous dense φ.Pressure Drop = f (gas velocity) for biphasic A curve = ΔP due to the air only (# proportional to v2) W curve = Wedging of the material F curve = sliding friction of the material (slow down. reacceleration) C = Total ΔP = f (m/sec) C’ = at higher mat./air ratio Phase types & characteristics: W lean phase (pure suspension) dense phase.ppt 11 F .
ppt 12 .Conveying system possible classification PRESSURE Qualified as: CONCENTRATION Material to air ratio Qualified (kg/kg .approximate) HP < 6 bar Dense (continuous or Compressor + Vessel > 40 High Wave motion) System HP < 3 bar Dense (continuous or Compressor + Vessel 15 to 40 Wave motion) System HP < 2 bar Dense (continuous) Compressor + Screw 15 to 30 Pump MP 0.5-1 bar Lean or semi-dense Roots Blower + Airlift # 13 Medium MP Lean or semi-dense Roots + Rotary 8 to 15 Feeder / MÖLLER P.3 bar Lean Multi-stages blower <3 LP < 0. MP Lean Roots + airlock / 4 Low ejector LP 0.15 b Lean Fan + airlock /ejector <1 Special: Fluidized aero-slide Blower or Fan PHASE TECHNOLOGY 100825_Pneumatic Transport_10_Intro_Theory.
ppt 13 . pressure Drop calculations. required airflow to be calculated from this ratio & expected output Then.Terminology and key points in conveying systems Concentration (loading ratio) = material to air ratio Material (kg/h) /Air (m3/h) .or kg/kg Air flow QV = volume at ambient. site conditions (air compressor intake) Air (mass) flow = QV x 1. from a first pipeline sizing (refer to next slide).293 Loading ratio is inherent to the pipeline length and to the choice (capacity) of the conveying system technology Refer to the previous table – usually between 15 and 40 for common systems in cement industry Next. and finally optimization Iterative calculation needed to optimize both conveying velocity & ΔP 100825_Pneumatic Transport_10_Intro_Theory.
T°C) / pipe cross-sectional area Basic characteristics to ensure transportation of the particles and minimize wear Pick-up Velocity (at the conveying pipeline inlet) For common products in cement industry. The pipe diameter can be increased by step to keep the velocity within a proper range (next slide).ppt 14 .Terminology and key points in conveying systems Gas Velocity = actual air flow (at P bar. 100825_Pneumatic Transport_10_Intro_Theory. usually recommended ≥ 10 m/sec. In a pipeline with fixed diameter. usually at ambient pressure condition and at conveying temperature) Gas expansion along the pipeline (speed mastering = stepped pipeline) The air will expand as it moves down the pipeline. P2 V2 at the pick-up point. Take care to calculate the actual airflow at P bar (P1 V1 at compressor intake. P1 V1 = P2 V2 ) & at the estimated temperature Exit Velocity (at the discharge point) “Exit” velocity usually recommended ≤ 30 m/sec. this can result in a high velocity at the end of the circuit.
Terminology and key points in conveying systems Stepped Pipeline: from the graph (principle). wear) and pressure drop. f( material and rate) Upper limit required to prevent wear Lower limit required 10m/sec pick-up & conveying velocity 100825_Pneumatic Transport_10_Intro_Theory.ppt 15 . Length and Ø of each section to be carefully designed. it is useful in a long distance system (>150m?) to keep the gas velocity in an envelope Most economical system = minimizing both air flow (wasted energy for the air.
Terminology and key points in conveying systems Conveying Pipeline “equivalent length” E.example: E. = LH + 2^LV + 5^NB = (220 m) LH = actual horizontal pipe length (150 m) LV = actual vertical pipe length (25 m) ID 183mm L1 = 25m ID 207mm L1 = 25m ID 207mm L1 = 0m NB = number of bends (4) “singular” P drop Diverters. (m) formula used to carry out pressure drop estimations .ppt 16 .L.L. feeder TOTAL required P ID 183mm L1 = 25m ID 183mm L2 = 100m 100825_Pneumatic Transport_10_Intro_Theory.
With or without wear-back (thick wall) “DENSIT wear-cast 2000” type inside (corundum aggregate) Spherical fabricated bends (permanent settling inside protecting the bend) No problem in horizontal planes Other types (tees.Conveying Pipeline Many types of bends can be used: Long radius bends Recommended radius = 6 x pipe Ø to avoid excessive P drop.…) 100825_Pneumatic Transport_10_Intro_Theory.ppt 17 .
ppt 18 .Conveying Pipeline Do not forget expansion joints wherever it is required (air intake or conveying pipe) Ex: DILATOFLEX type. allowed pressure 1.5 to 12 bars depending on the Ø 100825_Pneumatic Transport_10_Intro_Theory.
MÖLLER pumps.03 (airlifts.03-0.04 (rotary valve + ejector) Simplified formulae PKW pump = 1. screw pumps) – 0.02-0. of pipe E.72 x 100825_Pneumatic Transport_10_Intro_Theory.01-0.78 p = bar Q material = kg/h ρP = 900kg/m3 raw material ρP = 600kg/m3 dust ρP = 1100kg/m3 for cement PKW compressor = x 1. .From 0.L. rotary valves) – 0.ppt 19 .3 x Q material x p ρP QV 60 p Patm 0.02 (vessels. kWh/t and per m.Power Estimation Rough figures.
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