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--- atul soni

The widest meaning of the open spaces in residential areas is probably as
the “ unbuilt volume of space within a given volume.”


The functions of open spaces in residential areas can be usefully grouped
into three categories.
#utilitarian functions : These include environmental aspects like light &
ventilation inside the built spaces, the provision of access to use area and
the passive functions like parking, storage etc.
#social functions : These include social interaction, recreation etc.
#perceptual functions : These include aspects like aesthetic satisfaction,
creating a distinct identity of a given residential areas, etc.

• Ahmedabad is an important metropolitan centre in western India. It is divided

in three distinct zone.
1.central zone 2.eastern zone 3.western zone.
• The central zone comprises of the old city. having a personal report, with the
places I selected old city of Ahmedabad for selection of case-studies.
•Residential areas in this part are the traditional neighborhood locally known as
•Each pole has a well-defined boundary and an entrance gate. The houses are
clustered around looped or dead-end streets and sub-streets. The land is used
intensely with almost all plots fully covered without any margins. The houses
are oriented towards internal private courtyard. The built form generates mostly
positive open spaces.
•In this research I focused on “scale of spaces” and “levels of interaction”. with
different scale and location of open spaces, the definition of that open space
will differ.
•The architecture of Indian cities has an inward nature of place making because
of that it presents an interwoven pattern of enclosed and open spaces.

To study how different kinds of open to sky spaces are made. So as to

understand how the characteristics of formality, degree of public ness
& definition affect articulation of such places.


• Any evaluation of open spaces involves a consideration of the basic
objectives which ultimately are related to the functions.
• A planner or designer through his experience can generate many kind of
open spaces. But the success of this kind of open spaces may be to
satisfy the above functions.
• The second important aspect is the minimization of use of land &

The case studies are selected on the basis of their definitions.
The cases are identified in following manner.
• Chowk – private space.
• Otla – private space.
• Khadki – private type of interaction at urban level.
• Choktha – semi-public type of interaction at urban level.
• Chakla – public interaction at urban level.
• Street bazaar – public interaction at urban level.
• Temple – religious institute.

• This is the central open to sky

• It is the main characteristic within
the house of rich family.
• All the other functional spaces like
‘rasodu’, ‘paniyaru’, ‘pooja’ etc.
are built around it, so all the
activities take place around it.
• The ‘tanka’ was usually located
below the floor level of chowk.
• It is becoming the main space for
the social gathering.
• It is served as light well &
ventilation shaft.
• Next to chowk, there is semi open
passage around the chowk,
known as ‘osri’. It becomes the
transition space between the chowk
ordo pursal
chowk & the built space. ordo

• It is the front most spatial element of house

formed in a form of raised platform (plinth).
• It is the principle entry of ground floor from the
public street.
• The level difference demarcates the boundary
and also helps in attaining privacy.
• the otla is used mainly for sitting & doing
interaction with neighbors.
• Otla has a colonnade, supporting upper floor
extending outwards which provides shade & rain
• It provides a transitional space between public
space & private house.
•KHADKI •The second band next to ‘otla’ is called
Parking in •It is the semi public space.
•This place is in the inner part of a subordinate
street. A narrow approach from street leads to
the typical entrance gate of this place.
•Organization of this place consists of squarish
Wash area courtyard space in the middle, & on the two
in khadki sides the dwelling units faces each other. One
side is the entrance gate & the other side is the
buildings of shorter span used for storage &
•Sunlight never enters in this space due to the
height of the dwelling units which is more than
Plan of khadki
the width of the central open space called
‘khadki’, so in summer this place is used for
• This space is used for parking. Separate wash
area called ‘chokdi’ & ‘tanka’ for every dwelling
Entrance gate of unit are provided in this space. so interaction
khadki between neighbors is much more in this space.

• Courtyard space at the junction of

street is called ‘choktha’.
• This place highlights semi-public
type of interaction at urban level.
• This place is at the meeting point
of three subordinate streets,
connecting main streets.
• Here also daily activities like
parking, washing clothes, etc.
take place on the side &
occasional activities take place in
the centre. Dwelling units
• Commercial activities take place Dwelling units
in the approach from main street.
• The typical structure called choktha
‘chabutaro’ placed in the centre
of the ‘choktha’ is a focal point. shops
Dwelling units

• This place highlights public type

of interaction at urban level.
• This place is at the junction of
three main streets.
• Mainly commercial activities like
provisional shop, barber shop, pan
shop, cosmetic shop, etc. are
present on periphery.
• Retail trading by hawkers [mainly
fruits & vegetables] takes place in
the centre.
• Constant movement of people
gives higher public ness to this
• Public services like public toilets & shops Public toilet
public telephones are also
provided in this area.
•This building is identified as institutional
building for religious purpose.
•This courtyard space is between two
subordinate streets.
•Here also the courtyard space is in the centre.
The two entrances of the temple are placed on
the either side of this courtyard. The main
temple, the servant activities, dwellings for this
servants etc. are situated around this open
•Benches are provided for sitting.
•Inside the main temple the open spaces are
also provided. This space is used for storage.
At the time of big functions this space is used
as gathering space.
•The chowk is also provided in the centre of
the temple. The statue of God is placed in this
chowk. People are standing in the chowk for
•Dwelling units of pujaries are situated around
this chowk.
•when the commercial activities done on main
street, the main street is called street bazaar..
•This place highlights public type of interaction at
urban level.
•The trade activities [mainly fruit & vegetable
hawkers] are also done in street bazaar. Because of
that the space becomes over burdened.
•This space connects every small open spaces.
•Most of the main entrances of poles opens on this
main street.

Dwelling units

shops shops

Street bazaar

Dwelling units

• We have elaborately analyzed the existing open spaces in the pole

structure of Ahmedabad. Now the main task is to extend this idea more
fruitfully to the city area.
• Let us discuss some of the more fruitful positive suggestions in this regard.
• This can be categorized as
1. Inclusion of neighborhood interaction.
-- Because it is the general tendency of all human beings to lie
friendly with neighbors & to share their interests.
2. connection of between different levels of open spaces such as private to
semi private to semi public to public.
3. Grating more green spaces around the dwelling units.
-- we know the manifold importance of the green space which is
very much necessary in this era of urbanization to list some of
them, reduce pollution, clean environment, healthy atmosphere
& so on.
4. central open court should be provided into the luxurious bungalows
while semi private spaces should be provided in the center of high rise
• Now I would like to present my own design with a constructive
faithful suggestions.
• The city area can be broadly divided into three major zoneS 1.
High rise building blocks.
2. central public utilization space.
3. Individual dwelling units.
• The central zone of the city is devoted to the public utilization space so
that it can be accessed by both the residential zones.

• This central zone, on one side comprises of most essential public facilities
like hospital, schools, colleges etc.

• While the other opposite side includes recreation units such as theatre,
garden cum shopping mall, trade bazaar, etc.

• And the central area of the central zone includes amphitheatre, sports
ground & garden.

• In the high rise buildings the semi private

space can be used for making centers of
interaction & vertical shaft for ventilation.
where as in the individual dwelling units the
central open court can be provided to serve
this facility.

• In the high rise building zone & in the individual dwelling unit zone semi
public space included in the centre of the zone which comprises of club
house, swimming pool & small garden.
• The periphery of the city is covered with the green belt. It not only makes
the area beautiful but it is advantageous from many point of view as
discussed earlier.

• Lastly I would like to emphasize that there is very good connectivity

between different open spaces which can be channelized as private or
semi private to semi public to public space same as in the pole structure of

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