Power point presentation thermodynamics with the following topics, Basic Concepts and definition, dimensions and units, system, properties, state, process, cycle and laws of conservation of mass.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

33 views

Power point presentation thermodynamics with the following topics, Basic Concepts and definition, dimensions and units, system, properties, state, process, cycle and laws of conservation of mass.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Basic Concet of Thermodynamics
- THERMODYNAMICS.pdf
- Fluid Mechanics: Impact of Jets
- Introduction to Chemical Engineer
- Dissipative Brain, di G. Vitiello
- General System Theory - Applications for Organization and Management
- Dimensional Analysis, Similitude and Hydraulic Models
- notes of F.M
- Heat, work and energy
- Any physical entity is quantum information: and thus: mathematical!
- 10cv45.pdf
- Adiabatic Process - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
- Thermorfg
- Effect of the Pseudotime Function on Gas Reservoir Drainage Area Determination
- CSIR Syllabus
- IES Mechanical Engineering 2010
- Sci
- Presentation 1
- Thermal storage (chemical).pdf
- Quantum Thermodynamics With Local Control

You are on page 1of 87

By:

Orley G. Fadriquel

WIND TURBINE

Blade or Propeller

Turbine

Storage

Battery

Transformer

High Wind Velocity

Lower Wind Velocity

Generator

Generator

Transformer

Air Fuel

Piston Cylinder

Crank Shaft

Brake power

Indicated

Power

INTERNAL

COMBUSTION

ENGINE

Generator

Thermodynamics is

the study of energy and

its transformation, the

direction of flow of heat,

and the availability of

energy to do work.

The word

thermodynamics

derives from the two

Greek words therme

which means heat:

and dynamikos

which means power.

Approaches in the Study of

Thermodynamics

1.Microscopic or statistical

approach

2.Macroscopic approach

Microscopic or Statistical Approach

Structure of matter is considered and a

large number of variables are needed to

describe the state of matter.

The matter is composed of several

molecules and behaviour of each

individual molecule is studied.

Each molecule is having

certain position, velocity and

energy at a given instant.

The velocity and energy

change very frequently due to

collision of molecules.

Macroscopic approach

In macroscopic approach the

structure of matter is not

considered, in fact it is simple,

and only few variables are used

to describe the state of matter.

In this approach, a certain

quantity of matter composed of

large number of molecules is

considered without the events

occurring at the molecular level

being taken into account.

In this case, the properties of a particular

mass of substance, such as its

temperature, pressure, and volume are

analyzed. Generally, in engineering, this

analysis is used for study of heat engines

and other devices. This method gives the

fundamental knowledge for the analysis

of a wide variety of engineering

problems

Applications of Thermodynamics

Application of thermodynamic

principles in practical design tasks,

may be of a simple pressure cooker

or of a complex chemical plant.

The applications of thermodynamic

laws and principles are found in all

fields of energy technology.

steam and nuclear power plants

gas turbines

internal combustion engines

air conditioning

Refrigeration

gas dynamics

jet propulsion

compressors

others

DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

Dimensions implies physical quantities.

Examples are length, time, mass, force,

volume and velocity. In engineering

analysis, it is most important to check the

dimensional homogeneity of an equation

relating physical quantities. This means

that the dimensions of terms on one side

of the equation must equal those on the

other side.

Primary dimensions implies

units of physical quantities

conceived of and used to

measure other physical

quantities related by definition

and laws

Secondary dimensions

implies other physical

quantities measured using

primary dimensions

Unit is a definite standard or

measure of a dimension.

For example, foot, meters and

angstroms are all different units with

the common dimension of length.

A unit is any specified amount of a

quantity by comparison with which

any other quantity of the same kind

is measure.

In any dimensional

system, the units of

length, time, mass and

forces are related

through Newtons

second law of motion.

The total force acting on a

body is proportional to the

product of the mass and the

acceleration in the direction of

the force, thus,

F o ma ; F = 1/k ma

where k is the proportionality

constant.

UNITS OF DIFFERENT DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS

Name of

system

Unit

of

Mass

Unit of

Lengt

h

Unit of

time

Unit

of

force

K in

F = 1/k ma

Definition of terms

SI

(mks)

kg

m

m Sec N 1.0

9.806

1.0 N is the force needed to accelerate a

mass of 1.0 kg at 1.0 m/s

2

1.0 kg

f

is the force needed to accelerate a

mass of 1.0 kg

m

at 9.8066 m/s

2

English

Engg

lb

m

Ft Sec lb

f

32.17

1.0 lb

f

is the force needed to accelerate a

mass of 1.0 lb

m

at 32.174 ft/sec

2

Absolute

Engg

Slug Ft Sec lb

f

1.0

1.0 lb

f

is the force needed to accelerate a

mass of 1.0 slug mass at 1.0 ft/sec

2

Absolute

metric

(cgs)

g

m

Cm Sec dyne 1.0

980.66

1.0 dyne is the force needed to accelerate a

mass of 1.0 g at 1.0 cm/sec

2

1.0 g

f

is the force needed to accelerate a

mass 1.0 g

m

at 980.66 cm/s

2

2

f

m

s kg

m kg

2

m

s N

m kg

2

f

m

s lb

ft lb

2

f

s lb

ft slug

2

m

s dyne

cm g

2

f

m

s g

cm g

Base Unit

Specified once a set of primary dimensions

is adopted

quantity unit symbol

mass kilogram kg

length meter m

time second s

(Systeme Internationale dUnites)

Derived Unit

Also termed secondary unit, these are

units derived from the base units: given new

names, normally after a famous scientist.

Selected SI-derived units

Newton, N 1 N = 1 kg-m/s

2

Pascal, Pa 1 Pa = 1 N/m

2

Joule, J 1 J = 1 N-m

Watt, W 1 W = 1 J/s

SI unit prefixes

Factor prefix symbol Factor prefix symbol

10

12

Tera T 10

-2

centi c

10

9

Giga G 10

-3

milli m

10

6

Mega M 10

-6

micro

10

3

Kilo k 10

-9

nano n

10

2

hecto h 10

-12

pico p

10

1

deca da 10

-15

femto f

10

-1

deci d 10

-18

atto a

English Engineering Units

Base unit

quantity unit symbol

mass pound-mass lb

m

length foot ft

time second s

Derived unit

Quantity unit symbol

force pound-force lb

f

pressure pound-force psi

per square inch

THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM

System is defined as any collection of

matter or any region in space

bounded by a closed surface or wall.

Surrounding

Boundary

Piston

Cylinder

Boundary

Surrounding

System

boundary

Heat

Thermodynamic

System

gas

Weight

CLASSIFICATION OF THERMODYNAMIC

SYSTEM

Closed system- a system of fixed

mass. In this system, energy may

cross the boundary, and the total

mass within the boundary is fixed.

The system and its boundary may

contract or expand in volume

PISTON MOVEMENT

gas

1

2

Q

Surrounding

Boundary

Energy in

Energy out

Thermodynamic

System

W

Gas

Q

Heat

Open System- one in which matter

crosses the boundary of the

system. There may be energy

transfer also, i.e, both energy and

mass crosses the boundary of the

system. Most engineering devices

belong to this type.

PISTON MOVEMENT

gas

1

2

Q

Air out

Work in

Heat

boundary

Air in

Thermodynamic

System

Surrounding

Energy out

Energy out

Mass in

Mass out

Note: If the inflow of mass is

equal to the outflow of mass,

then the mass in the system is

constant and the system is

known as steady flow.

Isolated System - one in which neither

mass nor energy crosses the system

boundary. It is of fixed mass and

energy. The system is not affected by

the surrounding, i.e. there is no

interaction between the system and

surroundings.

Thermodynamic System

Surrounding

Flow through pipe

1 2 4 3 5

HOMOGENEOUS AND

HETEROGENEOUS SYSTEM

If the substance within the system

exists in a single phase like air, steam,

liquids then the system is called

HOMOGENEOUS SYSTEM. In these

systems, the substance exists in only

one phase.

If the substance within

the system exists in more

than one phase, then the

system is HETEROGENEOUS.

THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES

A property is either a directly

observable or an indirectly

observable characteristic of a

system. Any combination of such

characteristics is also a property.

THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES

The distinguishing characteristics of a

system by which its physical condition

may be described are called the

properties of the system. They are

quantities that we must specify to give a

macroscopic description of the system.

Two other properties -

temperature and entropy- are

unique to thermodynamics.

Together with energy, they play a

most important role in the

structure of thermodynamics.

Two types of classical

thermodynamic properties

Intensive Property

These properties are independent

of mass such as pressure,

temperature, voltage and density.

.

Extensive Property

These properties are dependent

of mass and are total values such as

total volume, total energy and

entropy.

Examples of thermodynamic properties,

besides pressure, volume and

Temperature, are: internal energy,

enthalpy, and entropy. Other properties

include: velocity, acceleration, moment

of inertia, electric charge, conductivity

(thermal and electrical), electromotive

force, stress, viscosity, reflectivity,

number of protons, and so on

Definition of properties

Mass amount or absolute

quantity of matter in a certain

body.

Volume the space occupied by

a certain body

.

Density

1. Mass density the mass of substance

divided by the volume the mass occupies

of simply, the mass per unit volume.

Water at standard conditions at 4

o

C (39.2

o

F)

water

= 1 g

m

/cm

3

= 1000 kg

m

/m

3

= 62.4 lb

m

/ft

3

.

2. Weight density also known as

the specific weight, it is defined as

the weight per unit volume.

Where :

g = 9.80665 m/s

2

= 32.174 ft/s

2

Water at standard conditions,

water

= 9.81 kN/m = 62.4 lb/ft

3

Specific volume - defined as the

volume per unit of mass of the

reciprocal of density

Weight, W force exerted by

gravity on a given mass, depends on

both the mass of the substance and

the gravitational field strength,

W = mg

Specific gravity the

dimensionless parameter, it is

defined as the ratio of the

density (or specific weight) of

a substance to some standard

density(specific weight)

For liquid substances

For gaseous substances

at STP = 1.2 kg/m

3

at 1 atm, 21.1

o

C

air

gas

air

gas

. G . S

=

O H

LIQUID

O H

LIQUID

2 2

. G . S

=

.

Pressure defined as the normal

force exerted by a system on a

unit area of its boundary.

Manometer the instrument used

in measuring pressure.

Standard reference atmospheric

pressure

1 atm = 14.7 psia

= 760 mm Hg

= 29.92 in Hg at 32

o

F

= 760 torrs

= 101.325 kpa

= 34 ft H

2

0

= 1.033 kg/cm

2

Types of pressure

a. Gage pressure, P

g

pressure of a fluid

and the atmospheric pressure,

measured using manometer or bourdon

gage

Note:

-Vacuum pressure is negative pressure;

-measured using fluid pressure <

atmospheric pressure

b. Atmospheric pressure, P

atm

- measured using a barometer, refer to

standard atmospheric cited above

c. Absolute pressure, P

abs

sum of the

gage pressure and atmospheric

pressure.

Relationships among the types of

pressure

For P

abs

> P

atm

P

abs

= P

atm

+ P

g

For P

abs

<

Patm

P

abs

= P

atm

P

v

Also, P

g

= h = gh

Temperature it is an

intensive property,

originates with our sense

perceptions, rooted in the

notion of hotness or

coldness of a body

Types of Temperature

a. Arbitrary, t man made calibrated

a.1 Celsius scale,

o

C (used to be

Centigrade scale). Named after Anders

Celsius, a Swedish

- steam point - equilibrium temperature of pure

liquid water in contact with its vapor at one

atmosphere; 100

o

C

- ice point equilibrium temperature of ice and air-

saturated liquid pressure at a pressure of one

atmosphere. 0

o

C

a.2 Fahrenheit scale ,

o

F

Named after Gabriel Fahrenheit, a

German who devised the first mercury-

in-glass thermometer; earlier

thermometer fluids used were alcohol

and linseed oil

- steam point : 212

o

F

- ice point : 32

o

F

b. Absolute, T measured from absolute zero,

all molecular motion cease. 0 Kelvin or 0

Rankine

b.1 Kelvin Scale, K

Named after William Thomson, aka Lord

Kelvin who related absolute scale to the

Celsius scale. The ice point is assigned with a

value of 273.15 K and the steam point is

assigned with the value 373.15 K. The triple

point of water is 273.16 K.

b.2 Rankine Scale, R

Named after William Macquorn

Rankine, a Scotish. The ice

point is assigned with a value

of 491.67 R and the steam

point is assigned with the

value 671.67 R The triple point

of water is 491.69 R.

THERMODYNAMIC STATE OF A SYSTEM

Thermodynamic

property B

Thermodynamic

property A

1

2

ZEROTH LAW

This law states that when two

bodies, isolated from other

environment are in thermal

equilibrium with a third body,

the two are in thermal

equilibrium with each other.

ZEROTH LAW

If two closed system with

different temperatures are brought

together in thermal contact with a

third system, the heat will flow from

the system with high temperature

to the system with low temperature

until the bodies reach thermal

equilibrium with each other.

Coffee in a cup

Tcoffee = Tcup=Tsurroundings

THERMODYNAMIC PROCESS

If any one or more

properties of a system change,

the system is said to have

undergone a process; there

has been a change of state.

Thermodynamic processes that

are commonly experienced in

engineering practice:

1. Constant pressure/ Isobaric process

2. Constant volume/ Isochoric process

3. Constant temperature/ Isothermal

process

4. Reversible adiabatic/ Isentropic process

5. Polytropic process

6. Throttling process/ Iso-enthalpic process

REVERSIBLE AND

IRREVERSIBLE

PROCESS

Reversible Process

A reversible process for a system is

an ideal process which once having

taken place can be reversed in such a

way that the initial state and all

energies transformed during the

process can be completely regained

in both systems and surroundings.

This process does not leave

any net change in the system

or in the surroundings. A

reversible process is always,

quasi-static.

Irreversible Process

If the initial state and energies

transformed cannot be

restored without net change in

the system after the process

has taken place, it is called

irreversible.

Quasi-Static Process

Quasi means almost.

Infinite slowness is the

characteristic feature of

this process. It is also a

reversible process.

THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE

When a certain mass of

fluid in a particular state

passes through a series of

processes and returns to its

state, it undergoes a cycle.

p

v

v

1

p

2

p

1

v

2

A

B

1

2

C

Cycles. By our convention of signs, cycles that

trace a clockwise path, as A-1-B-C-A or A-1-B-2-

A are delivering work; cycles tracing a

counterclockwise path, as A-C-B-1-A or A-2-B-

1-A, are receiving work.

LAW OF CONSERVATION

OF MASS

The law of conservation

of mass states that mass

is indestructible.

The verbal form of the law is

(

=

(

mass of change

leaving

mass

entering

mass

m

m

velocity

area

density

Assume that each point of any

cross section where the fluid flows,

the properties are the same and use

average velocity normal to the

section and assumed to be the same

at each point. Thus, if the density is

the same in all points of the cross

section of area A, then mass rate of

flow is

m = uelA

A steady flow system is an open

system in which there is no

change of stored mass; having an

equation called the continuity

equation of steady flow;

m

1

= m

2

= m

m =

1

u

1

A

1

=

2

u

2

A

2

GENERAL METHODOLOGY

FOR PROBLEM SOLVING IN

ENGINEERING

THERMODYNAMICS

As suggested by HUANG

1.Read the problem carefully

2.Since a sketch almost always aids

in visualization, draw a simple

diagram of all the components of

the system involved. This could

be a pump, a heat exchanger, gas

inside a tank, or an entire power

plant.

3. Select the system whose behavior we

want to study by properly and clearly

locating the boundary of the system.

Do we have an isolated system, a

closed system, or an open system.

4. Make use of the appropriate

thermodynamic diagrams to locate

the state points, and possibly the

path of the process. These diagrams

are extremely helpful as visual aids in

our analysis.

5. Show all interactions (work, heat,

and mass) across the boundary of

the selected system.

6. Extract from the statement of the

problem the unique features of the

process and list them. Is the

process isothermal, constant

pressure, constant volume,

adiabatic, isentropic, or constant

enthalpy?

7. List all the assumptions that

one might need to solve the

problem. Are we neglecting a

change of kinetic energy and

change of potential energy?

8. Apply first law equation

appropriate to the system we

have selected.

9. Apply the principle of mass

conservation appropriate to

the system that we have

selected.

10.Apply the second law

equation appropriate to the

system we have selected

11.Apply the appropriate

property relations. That is,

bring in data from tables,

charts, or appropriate property

equations.

12.Try to work with general

equations as long as possible

before substituting in numbers

13.Watch out for units. For

example, when we use h = u

+pv, h, u, and pv must all have

the same units.

14.Make sure that absolute

temperature, in degrees

Rankine or Kelvin, is used in

calculation.

- Basic Concet of ThermodynamicsUploaded bySachin Chaturvedi
- THERMODYNAMICS.pdfUploaded byChetan Chaurasia
- Fluid Mechanics: Impact of JetsUploaded byjoshx12
- Introduction to Chemical EngineerUploaded byOmar Adel Mehanna
- Dissipative Brain, di G. VitielloUploaded byMarioEs
- General System Theory - Applications for Organization and ManagementUploaded byIvan Petrof
- Dimensional Analysis, Similitude and Hydraulic ModelsUploaded bykasandra01
- notes of F.MUploaded bynidhalsaada
- Heat, work and energyUploaded byLuiza Beznea
- Any physical entity is quantum information: and thus: mathematical!Uploaded byVasil Penchev
- 10cv45.pdfUploaded bySureshKumar
- Adiabatic Process - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded bydonodoni0008
- ThermorfgUploaded bywqdwqed
- Effect of the Pseudotime Function on Gas Reservoir Drainage Area DeterminationUploaded bydownloader1983
- CSIR SyllabusUploaded bysmg26thmay
- IES Mechanical Engineering 2010Uploaded byShamir Noorsumar
- SciUploaded byJoshua Caramat Rojan
- Presentation 1Uploaded byHugMoco Moco Locah Ü
- Thermal storage (chemical).pdfUploaded bySandra
- Quantum Thermodynamics With Local ControlUploaded byYash
- Consumer Solar Thermal Power - SummaryUploaded byManuel Nascimento
- 1-s2.0-S0010218016300931-mainUploaded byAngel Rh
- Laws of Thermodynamics_newUploaded byPeter Chea
- Dimensional AnalysisUploaded byMxia Yew
- My File.docxUploaded byRead-em-all
- II Processes and Variable - Checal1Uploaded byAdrian Navarra
- PhysicsUploaded byAbeer Muhammad Shaheen
- 01 Temperature & HeatUploaded byMarc Alamo
- 158460007 High Speed Aerodynamics NotesUploaded byawarialocks
- Fluid DynamicsUploaded byAidilmann Ashrafeider

- General-Chemistry-1.pdfUploaded byRaven Matibag
- PPEUploaded byOrley Fadriquel
- Apa Quick ReferenceUploaded byJorge Octavio Hurtado González
- Answer to Design ProblemUploaded byOrley Fadriquel
- Tech Manual v-beltsUploaded bycakhokhe
- CMO 9, s. 2008-BSME Course SpecificationUploaded byOrley Fadriquel
- Democracy in EducationUploaded byOrley Fadriquel
- Waste Water TreatmentUploaded byOrley Fadriquel
- 10_principlesUploaded bysurbhi_cancer_157781
- Chapter 9_Fire Protection Systems.pdfUploaded byBhanuka Samarakoon
- Requirements for Boiler RoomsUploaded byBrian May
- Plant Lay Out & DesignUploaded byOrley Fadriquel
- PPE - Introduction (Stationary Power Station)Uploaded byOrley Fadriquel
- Maximum Expected Demand FormUploaded byOrley Fadriquel
- General Chemistry 2Uploaded byOrley Fadriquel
- Basic CalculusUploaded byOrley Fadriquel
- Chimneys and DraftsUploaded byOrley Fadriquel
- Bachelor of Science in Electrical EngineeringUploaded byCJ Manalo
- Lesson 7-Properties of Gas and Vapor MixturesUploaded byOrley Fadriquel
- Lesson 6-Real GasesUploaded byOrley Fadriquel
- CMO 9, S[1]. 2008 - Annex II -Relationship of Program Outcomes in Mechanical EngineerinngUploaded byOrley Fadriquel
- Ideal Gas ProcessesUploaded byOrley Fadriquel
- Processes of Pure SubstancesUploaded byOrley Fadriquel
- ME Research Presentation.pptxUploaded byOrley Fadriquel
- Research Proposal 2009(Final)Uploaded byOrley Fadriquel
- Abstract -The Effect of BiodieselUploaded byOrley Fadriquel
- Eligibility and Employ Ability of ME Grad of RSUUploaded byOrley Fadriquel

- JJ207 Thermodynamic Topic 2 First Law of ThermodynamicsUploaded byAh Tiang
- VFThPhUploaded byPascal Cătălin
- 5.Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics NET-JRF June 2011-June 2017Uploaded byRamesh Iswara
- Baltzar Von PLATEN -- Thermal Engine -- Articles & Australian Patent 501680Uploaded byV-Knows
- Thermo Chapter_4_lecture.pdfUploaded byFattihiEkhmal
- Jee Advanced 2018 Question p2Uploaded bydeepakchandu k
- 16469890 Formula Booklet Physics XIUploaded byHarikrishnan Menoth
- Second Law of Thermodynamics in Isochoric ProcessUploaded byJohn Paul Ore
- ThermodynamicsUploaded byPriyansh Mishra
- BottleBlowDownAnalysisLesson_Final2.pptxUploaded byMOST PASON
- QSR-MechanicalSystemsUploaded byJuan Dela Cruz
- 5462. Chapter 1-4Uploaded bySuji
- Extra Materials Carnot EngineUploaded bytruffelove
- Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer & Fluid Flow Volume IUploaded byJoselinn Loaeza
- 01 02 Thermodynamics Introduction Heat Work FormsofEnergy DrAmjadUploaded byAmjad Ali Pasha
- aula-6Uploaded byavenasha
- E-45-ThermoUploaded byIan Dulu Palen
- Removing the Mystery of Entropy and Thermodynamics – Part 2Uploaded byMoly69x
- An Introduction to Stirling-cycle MachinesUploaded bysandigric
- Thermodynamics (Gases Theory and Laws of Thermodynamics)Uploaded byYadana
- ThermodynamicsUploaded byDinesh Pandian
- Chapter 1Uploaded byFattihiEkhmal
- Carnot cycleUploaded byMuhammad Jabroot
- (6) Change in Entropy and Third Law of ThermodynamicsUploaded bys
- Refrigeration QbUploaded byapi-25999517
- Review of 1 and 2 law of thermo - IITG.pdfUploaded byVasudev Gupta
- Chemical Thermodynamics.docUploaded byJaydeep Deore
- UT Physics Lecture 18Uploaded byAlberto Amatong
- 1408615299-1.pdfUploaded bySandipSing
- Mechanical Science II (2009) by Nag Pati JanaUploaded byzenithtutorials12