1.5.1 Effective Mass
m
F
dk
E d q
= =
2
2
2
on accelerati
c
2 2
2
/
mass effective
dk E d
\

A
A
3
cm eV
1
volume
in states of number
) (
E
E
E D
c
( )
2 8
) (
3
h
E E m m
E D
c n n
c
t
( )
2 8
) (
3
h
E E m m
E D
v p p
v
t
Derived in Appendix I
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 116
1.7 Thermal Equilibrium and the Fermi Function
1.7.1 An Analogy for Thermal Equilibrium
 There is a certain probability for the electrons in the
conduction band to occupy highenergy states under
the agitation of thermal energy.
Dish
Vibrating Table
Sand particles
Appendix II. Probability of a State at E being Occupied
There are g
1
states at E
1
, g
2
states at
E
2
There are N electrons, which
constantly shift among all the states
but the average electron energy is
fixed at 3kT/2.
The equilibrium distribution is the distribution that
maximizes the number of combinations of placing n
1
in g
1
slots, n
2
in g
2
slots. :
There are many ways to distribute
N among n
1
, n
2
, n
3
.and satisfy the
3kT/2 condition.
ni/gi =
E
F
is a constant determined by the condition
= N n
i
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 118
1.7.2 Fermi FunctionThe Probability of an Energy State
Being Occupied by an Electron
Remember: there is only
one Fermilevel in a system
at equilibrium.
kT E E
f
e
E f
/ ) (
1
1
) (
+
=
E
f
is called the Fermi energy or
the Fermi level.
( ) kT E E
f
e E f
~ ) (
kT E E
f
>>
( ) kT E E
f
e E f
~1 ) (
kT E E
f
<<
Boltzmann approximation:
f(E)
0.5 1
E
f
E
f
kT
E
f
2kT
E
f
3kT
E
f
+ kT
E
f
E
f
+ 2kT
E
f
+ 3kT
E
( ) kT E E
f
e E f
~ ) (
( ) kT E E
f
e E f
~1 ) (
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 119
1.8 Electron and Hole Concentrations
}
=
band conduction of top
) ( ) (
c
E
c
dE E D E f n
( )
( )
) (
2 8
0
3
Ec E d e E E e
h
m m
kT E E
Ec E
c
kT E E
n n
c
f c
=
}
t
( )
dE e E E
h
m m
n
kT E E
E
c
n n
f
c
}
=
3
2 8t
1.8.1 Derivation of n and p from D(E) and f(E)
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 120
Electron and Hole Concentrations
Remember: the closer E
f
moves up to N
c
, the larger n is;
the closer E
f
moves down to E
v
, the larger p is.
For Si, N
c
= 2.8
10
19
cm
3
and N
v
= 1.04
10
19
cm
3
.
kT E E
c
f c
e N n
/ ) (
=
2 3
2
2
2
(
h
kT m
N
n
c
t
kT E E
v
v f
e N p
/ ) (
=
2 3
2
2
2
(
h
kT m
N
p
v
t
N
c
is called the effective
density of states (of the
conduction band) .
N
v
is called the effective
density of states of the
valence band.
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 121
1.8.2 The Fermi Level and Carrier Concentrations
kT E E
c
f c
e N n
/ ) (
=
( ) ( ) eV 6 14 . 0 10 / 10 8 . 2 ln 026 . 0 ln
17 19
= = = n N kT E E
c f c
( ) ( ) eV 31 . 0 10 / 10 04 . 1 ln 026 . 0 ln
14 19
= = = p N kT E E
v v f
E
c
E
f
E
v
0.146 eV
(a)
0.31 eV
E
c
E
f
E
v
(b)
Where is E
f
for n =10
17
cm
3
? And for p = 10
14
cm
3
?
Solution: (a)
(b) For p = 10
14
cm
3
, from Eq.(1.8.8),
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 122
1.8.2 The Fermi Level and Carrier Concentrations
10
13
10
14
10
15
10
16
10
17
10
18
10
19
10
20
E
v
E
c
N
a
or N
d
(cm
3
)
kT E E
c
f c
e N n
/ ) (
=
( ) n N kT E E
c c f
ln =
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 123
1.8.3 The np Product and the Intrinsic Carrier Concentration
In an intrinsic (undoped) semiconductor, n = p = n
i
.
kT E
v c i
g
e N N n
2 /
=
2
i
n np =
kT E E
c
f c
e N n
/ ) (
=
kT E E
v
v f
e N p
/ ) (
=
and
Multiply
kT E
v c
kT E E
v c
g
v c
e N N e N N np
/
/ ) (
= =
n
i
is the intrinsic carrier concentration, ~10
10
cm
3
for Si.
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 124
Question: What is the hole concentration in an Ntype semiconductor
with 10
15
cm
3
of donors?
Solution: n = 10
15
cm
3
.
After increasing T by 60C, n remains the same at 10
15
cm
3
while p
increases by about a factor of 2300 because .
Question: What is n if p = 10
17
cm
3
in a Ptype silicon wafer?
Solution:
EXAMPLE: Carrier Concentrations
3  5
3 15
3 20
2
cm 10
cm 10
cm 10
= ~ =
n
n
p
i
kT E
i
g
e n
/ 2
3  3
3 17
3 20
2
cm 10
cm 10
cm 10
= ~ =
p
n
n
i
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 125
EXAMPLE: Complete ionization of the dopant atoms
N
d
= 10
17
cm
3
. What fraction of the donors are not ionized?
Solution: First assume that all the donors are ionized.
Probability of not
being ionized
04 . 0
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
meV 26 / ) meV ) 45 146 ((
/ ) (
=
+
=
+
e e
kT E E
f d
Therefore, it is reasonable to assume complete ionization, i.e., n = N
d
.
meV 146 cm 10
3 17
= = =
c f d
E E N n
E
c
E
f
E
v
146 meV
E
d
45meV
1.9 General Theory of n and p
~
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 126
2
i
n np =
d a
N p N n + = + Charge neutrality:
2 / 1
2
2
2 2
(
(
+

.

\

+
=
i
d a d a
n
N N N N
p
2 / 1
2
2
2 2
(
(
+

.

\

+
=
i
a d a d
n
N N N N
n
1.9 General Theory of n and p
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 127
I. (i.e., Ntype)
If ,
II.
(i.e., Ptype)
If ,
a d
N N n =
n n p
i
2
=
i a d
n N N >>
a d
N N >>
d
N n =
d i
N n p
2
= and
i d a
n N N >> d a
N N p =
p n n
i
2
=
d a
N N >>
a
N p =
a i
N n n
2
= and
1.9 General Theory of on n and p
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 128
EXAMPLE: Dopant Compensation
What are n and p in Si with (a) N
d
= 610
16
cm
3
and N
a
= 210
16
cm
3
and (b) additional 610
16
cm
3
of N
a
?
(a)
(b) N
a
= 210
16
+ 610
16
= 810
16
cm
3
> N
d
3 16
cm 10 4
= =
a d
N N n
3 3 16 20
2
cm 10 5 . 2 10 4 / 10 /
= = = n n p
i
3 16 16 16
cm 10 2 10 6 10 8
= = =
d a
N N p
3 3 16 20
2
cm 10 5 10 2 / 10 /
= = = p n n
i
+ + + + + +
. . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .
N
d
= 610
16
cm
3
N
a
= 210
16
cm
3
n = 410
16
cm
3
+ + + + + +
       
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
N
d
= 610
16
cm
3
N
a
= 810
16
cm
3
p = 210
16
cm
3
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 129
1.10 Carrier Concentrations at Extremely High
and Low Temperatures
intrinsic regime
n = N
d
freezeout regime
l
n
n
1/T
High
temp
Room temp Cryogenic temp
kT E
v c i
g
e N N n p n
2 /
= = =
kT E E
d c
d c
e
N N
n
2 / ) (
2 / 1
2
(
=
high T:
low T:
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 130
I nfrared Detector Based on Freezeout
To image the blackbody radiation emitted by tumors
requires a photodetector that responds to hvs around 0.1 eV.
In doped Si operating in the freezeout mode, conduction
electrons are created when the infrared photons provide the
energy to ionized the donor atoms.
photon
E
c
E
v
electron
E
d
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 131
1.11 Chapter Summary
Energy band diagram. Acceptor. Donor. m
n
, m
p
.
Fermi function. E
f
.
kT E E
c
f c
e N n
/ ) (
=
kT E E
v
v f
e N p
/ ) (
=
a d
N N n =
d a
N N p =
2
i
n np =