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FIRE SAFETY IN BUILDINGS

AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, JAIPUR

FIRE INTRODUCTION

1.

Enough OXYGEN to sustain combustion

2.
3.

Enough HEAT to reach ignition temperature
Some FUEL or combustible material Together, they produce the CHEMICAL REACTION that is fire

Take away any of these things and the fire will be extinguished AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, JAIPUR

FIRE FUEL CLASSIFICATION
Fires are classified according to the type of fuel that is burning. If you use the wrong type of fire extinguisher on the wrong class of fire, you might make matters worse.

Class A: Wood, paper, cloth, trash, plastics—solids that are not metals.
Class B: Flammable liquids—gasoline, oil, grease, acetone. Includes flammable gases. Class C: Electrical—energized electrical equipment. As long as it’s “plugged in.”

Class D: Metals—potassium, sodium, aluminum, magnesium. Requires Metal-X, foam, and other special extinguishing agents.
AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, JAIPUR

FIRE TYPES OF EXTINGUISHERS

Water (APW)

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Dry Chemical (A-B-C, B-C, D-C)

AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, JAIPUR

JAIPUR . there is no fire. Pressurized Co2 fire extinguishers Carbon dioxide is a nonflammable gas that takes away the oxygen element of the fire triangle. so it cools the fuel as well.” Filled with ordinary tap water and pressurized air. they are essentially large squirt guns. AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE. Dry chemical extinguishers put out fire by coating the fuel with a thin layer of dust. APW’s extinguish fire by taking away the “heat” element of the Fire Triangle. This separates the fuel from the oxygen in the air. It is composed of monoammonium phosphate powder pressurized with nitrogen.FIRE TYPES OF EXTINGUISHERS APW stands for “AirPressurized Water. CO2 is very cold as it comes out of the extinguisher. Without oxygen.

and potassium. zirconium. Initial application should be made at the base of the fire. titanium. 4 to 6 feet. • • Often used to protect electrical equipment leaves no residue. Limited range. AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE. Often specific for the type of metal in question.FIRE TYPES OF EXTINGUISHERS METAL FIRES Used on fires involving metals such as magnesium. Have no rating nor given a multi-purpose rating for use on other types of fires. sodium. • HALON • Contains a gas that interrupts the chemical reaction that takes place when fuels burn. JAIPUR . even after the flames have been extinguished.

Robert Charney 7 . bars) 3.FIRE BUILDING CLASSIFICATION A Assembly Divisions 1. Open air gatherings (race track) AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE. Others not classified (restaurants. Production and viewing of performing arts 2. Arenas 4.

FIRE BUILDING CLASSIFICATION Group A. Division 1 ASSEMBLY • • • • Motion picture theaters Opera houses Television studios admitting a viewing audience Theaters. including experimental theaters AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE. Robert Charney 8 .

Robert Charney . Division 2 ASSEMBLY • • • • • • • • • Art galleries Auditoria Bowling alleys Churches and similar places of worship Clubs.FIRE BUILDING CLASSIFICATION Group A. nonresidential 9 AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE. nonresidential Community halls Courtrooms Dance halls Exhibition halls • • • • • • • • • Gymnasia Lecture halls Libraries Licensed beverage establishments Museums Passenger stations and depots Recreational piers Restaurants Schools and colleges.

with or without spectator seating • Rinks Group A Division 3 ASSEMBLY AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE.FIRE BUILDING CLASSIFICATION • Arenas • Indoor swimming pools. Robert Charney 10 .

Robert Charney 11 .FIRE BUILDING CLASSIFICATION Group A Division 4 ASSEMBLY • • • • • Amusement park structures (not elsewhere classified) Bleachers Grandstands Reviewing stands Stadia AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE.

Under restraint or limited self preservation due to security measures 2. jails. Cognitive or physical limitations requiring special care or treatment AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE. psychiatric wards and special needs facilities Divisions 1.FIRE BUILDING CLASSIFICATION B Care and Detention • Includes penitentiaries. Robert Charney 12 .

Robert Charney 13 .FIRE BUILDING CLASSIFICATION Group B Division 1 CARE AND DETENTION • • • • • • Jails Penitentiaries Police stations with detention quarters Prisons Psychiatric hospitals with detention quarters Reformatories with detention quarters AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE.

FIRE BUILDING CLASSIFICATION Group B Division 2 CARE AND DETENTION • • • • • • • • • Children’s custodial homes Convalescent homes Hospitals Infirmaries Nursing homes Orphanages Psychiatric hospitals without detention quarters Reformatories without detention quarters Sanatoria without detention quarters AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE. Robert Charney 14 .

FIRE BUILDING CLASSIFICATION C Residential Divisions (none) • May include group homes and personal care AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE. Robert Charney 15 .

residential Group C RESIDENTIAL AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE. residential Convents Dormitories Hotels Houses Lodging houses Monasteries Motels Schools. Robert Charney 16 .FIRE BUILDING CLASSIFICATION • • • • • • • • • • • • Apartments Boarding houses Clubs. residential Colleges.

locksmith AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE. Robert Charney 17 .FIRE BUILDING CLASSIFICATION D Business and Personal Service Divisions (none) • insurance. dentist. hair salon.

not using flammables Laundries. self serve. self serve Medical offices Offices Police stations without detention quarters Radio stations Small tool and appliance rental and service establishments by Robert Charney 18 .Group D BUSINESS and PERSONAL SERVICE • • • • • • • • • • • Banks Barber and hairdressing shops Beauty parlors Dental offices Dry cleaning establishments.

FIRE BUILDING CLASSIFICATION E • department stores Mercantile Divisions (none) AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE. Robert Charney 19 .

Robert Charney 20 .FIRE BUILDING CLASSIFICATION Group E MERCANTILE • • • • • • Department stores Exhibition halls Markets Shops Stores Supermarkets AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE.

Manufacturing Industrial Divisions high hazard medium hazard low hazard AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE.FIRE BUILDING CLASSIFICATION F • 1. Robert Charney 21 . 3. 2.

Division 1 INDUSTRIAL • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bulk plants for flammable liquids Bulk storage warehouses for hazardous substances Cereal mills Chemical manufacturing or processing plants Distilleries Dry cleaning plants Feed mills Flour mills Grain elevators Lacquer factories Mattress factories Paint.FIRE BUILDING CLASSIFICATION Group F. Robert Charney 22 . varnish and pyroxylin product factories Rubber processing plants Spray painting operations Waste paper processing plants AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE.

Division 2 INDUSTRIAL • • • • • • • • • • • • • Aircraft hangers Box factories Candy plants Cold storage plants Dry cleaning establishments not using flammable solvents Electrical substations Factories Freight depots Helicopter landing areas on roofs Laboratories Laundries. except self serve Mattress factories Workshops • • • • • • • • Workshops Planing mills Printing plants Repair garages Salesrooms Service stations Storage rooms Television studios not admitting viewing audience • Warehouses • Wholesale rooms • Woodworking factories AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE.FIRE BUILDING CLASSIFICATION Group F. Robert Charney 23 .

Division 3 INDUSTRIAL • • • • • • • • • • Creameries Factories Laboratories Power plants Salesrooms Sample display rooms Storage garages. including open air parking garages Storage rooms Warehouses Workshops AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE. Robert Charney 24 .FIRE BUILDING CLASSIFICATION Group F.

FIRE CONSTRUCTION The fire resistance of a building or its structural components is expressed in hours against a specified fire load which is expressed in Kcl/m2 and against a certain intensity of fire. Robert Charney 25 . As per the code the construction is divided into 4 types TYPE – I CONSTRUCTION TYPE – II CONSTRUCTION 4 Hour Rating 3 Hour Rating TYPE – III CONSTRUCTION TYPE – IV CONSTRUCTION 2 Hour Rating 1 Hour Rating AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE.

Robert Charney 26 .FIRE CONSTRUCTION AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE.

FIRE PLANNING – BUILDING TYPE Single Occupancy The building being used for a single type of function. Robert Charney 27 . Mixed Occupancy If the building Is being used for more than one type of occupancy then in case of fire norms for more hazardous building will be followed. AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE.

5 minutes.FIRE PLANNING – EXITS All the entry and exits routes including the corridors. verandah or terrace which have a access to the street or to other building at the same level can be called the Fire exit. Minimum width of the opening and corridors must be 1m (additional 500mm clear width will be counted as additional half unit) Width of the exits shall be in accordance with the occupant load for the building and should facilitate for complete evacuation in 2. Exits shall be so arranged such that they may be reached without passing through another occupied unit. AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE. staircases. Robert Charney 28 . doorways. Lifts and escalators shall not be considered as exits. rating. passage ways. All exits shall be provided with doors of minimum 2 Hr.

FIRE PLANNING – OCCUPANT LOAD OCCUPANT LOAD OCCUPANT PER EXIT WIDTH AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE. Robert Charney 29 .

Robert Charney 30 .FIRE PLANNING – TRAVEL DISTANCE For fully sprinkled building the travel distance may be increased by 50% of the values specified ramps shall be provided with automatic sprinkler system and shall be counted as one of the means of escape. AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE.

Minimum Width of Staircase: Tread Riser 300mm 150mm AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE. Robert Charney 31 .FIRE PLANNING – STAIRCASE (INDOOR) Should be constructed of non combustible martials. No Gas piping or Electrical panels shall be allowed in the stairway. The staircase shall not be arranged around the lift shaft.

AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE. All external staircase shall be connected to the ground. Spiral Staircase Shall not be permitted for building with more than 9 Mts. Handrail will be at a height of 1200mm. The width of the stair shall not be less than 1250mm with a tread of min 250 mm and riser not more than 190mm.FIRE PLANNING – STAIRCASE (EXTERNAL) It Is desirable to be provided in high rise buildings. Height. Robert Charney 32 . Entrance to the external stair shall be separate and remote from internal stair.

FIRE PLANNING – STAIRCASE (PRESSURIZED) In pressurization air is injected into the staircase lobby which prevents the accumilation of toxic gases in the stair lobby. Pressurization can be in two stages: Single Stage : operational only during the case of fire Double Stage: a nominal pressure is maintained in the escape route and increases level of pressurization can be used in case of emergency. Robert Charney 33 . Pressure difference in the staircase shall be : AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE.

All fire lifts shall have a minimum capacity of 8 passengers with a emergency switch provided on the ground floor for operation under emergency. Robert Charney 34 .FIRE PLANNING – LIFTS All Lifts in the building shall not be regarded as fire lifts. All fire lifts shall have a operational power backup and made of material of 4 Hr. rating. AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE.

The system must include an accurate and effective method for testing to assure system integrity. Robert Charney .FIRE DETECTION AND WARNING SYSTEMS Fire warning system must provide an immediate warning of fire or overheat by means of a red light and an audible signal in the flight deck. The system must be durable and resistant to damage from all the environmental factors that may exist in the location where it is installed. MAINLY OF TWO TYPES Thermo-switch Thermocouple 35 AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE. removed and installed. The system must be easily inspected. The system must accurately indicate that a fire had been extinguished and indicate if the fire re-ignites.

sometimes called a spot detector. Closing the circuit activated the warning system in control room AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE. Aircraft by Maintenance Robert Charney and Repair JAIPUR pg: 602-614 References: Aircraft Powerplants pg: 649- 36 .FIRE THERMO-SWITCH SYSTEM • • • • • A circuit in which one or more thermal switches are connected to an electrical circuit with a warning horn and an aural alarm. If more than one thermal switch is used they are connected in parallel. 657. thus closing the circuit. The thermal switch. works by expansion of the outer casing in the unit. so closing of any one switch will provide warning. causing the two contacts inside to meet. When exposed to heat the casing becomes longer.

• Thermocouples are made of two dissimilar metals which are twisted together inside an open frame. References: Aircraft Powerplants pg: 649657.Thermocouple System • Also called a “rate of rise” detection system. Aircraft Maintenance and Repair pg: 602-614 . • A circuit where one or more thermocouples are connected in series to activate an alarm when there is a sufficient temperature increase at the sensor.

The cold junction is located under the insulating material in the sensor unit. When there is a difference in temperature a current is created. 657. AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE. If the temperature rise is slow so that the cold junction heats up along with the hot junction then the relay will not be activated. The exposed wires make a hot junction.FIRE THERMOCOUPLE SYSTEM • • • • • • The frame allows air to flow over the wires without exposing the wires to damage. Aircraft by Maintenance Robert Charney and Repair JAIPUR pg: 602-614 References: Aircraft Powerplants pg: 649- 38 . – About 4 mA The current created sets off a sensitive relay activating the alarm.

FIRE FIXED INSTALLATIONS The following type of fixed installations may be required as per the use and occupant load of the building: FIRE EXTINGUSHER WET RISER DOWN CORNER AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM WATER SPRAY FOAM GASEOUS DRY POWDER SYSTEM AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE. Robert Charney 39 .

FIRE FIXED INSTALLATIONS AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF JAIPUR byARCHITECTURE. Robert Charney 40 .