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CHARACTERISTICS OF 19TH CENTURY CZARS • • • • • • Autocracy Harsh measures against opponents Secret police Pogroms Oppression of non-Russians Resistance to change .

000 + killed Creation of Duma • First parliament of Russia • Czar forced to share power.EVENTS OF 1905 Bloody Sunday • 200. dissolved it after 10 weeks . 1.000 workers march on czar’s winter palace • Troops fire on crowd.

crazy. and corrupt • People poor and starving. lots of unrest .NICHOLAS II’s MISTAKES • Brought Russia into WWI • Moved Headquarters to front in WWI • Czarina Alexandra given power. she became influenced by Rasputin • Rasputin was freaky.

000 workers march on St.• MARCH 1917 (February in Russian Calendar) • 200. Petersburg (Petrograd) over bread and fuel shortages • Czar’s soldiers joined the crowds “DOWN WITH AUTOCRACY!” .


PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT Temporary Government Led by: Alexander Kerensky But the Provisional Government did not have as much power as the… .

and soldiers . peasants.• Formed by social revolutionaries • Local councils in cities • Consisted of workers.

MISTAKES OF PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT Biggest mistake: kept Russia in World War One Also. did not help workers or peasants with food and fuel shortages Lost all support! .

arrested Prov.NOVEMBER REVOLUTION Led by: Vladimir Lenin. Land. leader of Bolshevik Party (Communists!) His slogan: “Peace. and Bread” • Bolshevik Red Guards took over gov’t offices. Gov’t leaders • Bolsheviks in power November 1917 .

leading to Russian Civil War .• All farmland distributed to peasants • Factories controlled by workers • End Russia’s involvement in WWI • Gained many opponents.

RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR 1918-1920 RED ARMY • Bolsheviks (Communists!) • Led by…Leon Trotsky WHITE ARMY • Opponents of Bolsheviks in Russia. western nations like the USA .

RESULTS OF THE CIVIL WAR • Red Army crushes all opposition to Bolshevik rule • Russian economy destroyed: no trade or industrial production .


and businesses allowed . farms.THE NEW ECONOMIC POLICY 1921 To help Russia recover from the war Lenin allowed for a little bit of capitalism • Peasants could sell surplus (extra) crops for profit • Individuals could buy and sell goods for profit • Some small factories.

NEW COUNTRY • Lenin organized Russia into self-governing republics • Central Government controlled them! • 1922: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) • Capital: Moscow • Lenin had created a “Dictatorship of the Communist Party” • This becomes known as Leninism .