UNIT-1 Rotor Spinning

B.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY

3rd YEAR 1st SEM

1

 This

search began on a broad front at the end of the 1960s.  The newer spinning systems developed since then include rotor spinning, air-jet spinning, friction spinning, vortex spinning, electrostatic spinning, core spinning, wrap spinning, twistless spinning and others.

B.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY

3rd YEAR 1st SEM

2

 The

structures of yarn obtained from these systems are also different and vary in many aspects.  The ring yarns have helical structure and even twist distribution, but sometimes there can be problem in ring spun yarn related to twist liveliness and migration of fibres inside yarn.  For improving these aspect new structures came into picture, which are different from ring spun yarn structure and these structures will also behave differently in fabric stages
B.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM

3

TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 4 .TWIST DISTRIBUTION IN YARNS FROM DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES B.

TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 5 .B.

B.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 6 .

friction spinning and disc spinning. B. rotor spinning. electrostatic spinning.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 7 . air-vortex spinning.

The individual fibres are subsequently collected onto the open end of the yarn.    Open end spinning is also known as break spinning or free fibre spinning.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 8 . This is rotated to twist the fibre into the yarn structure to form a continuous strand of yarn. This is wound onto a bobbin to form the yarn package B. In this process the fibrous material is highly drafted to separate out the individual fibres.

 a device for rotating the yarn end to insert twist into the collected fibres.  a device for collecting the separated fibres onto the yarn end in a manner that enables the correct yarn count to be obtained. B.a device for drafting the fibrous mass into individual fibres. and  a means of winding the yarn on to the package.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 9 .  a means of transporting the fibres to the yarn end.

TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 10 . lower power consumption per unit quantity of yarn produced  higher speed of twist insertion resulting in very high yarn delivery speed a significant resulting increase in productivity  larger delivered package size  elimination of some processes such as roving and winding  more uniform yarns B.

TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 11 . B. Open end yarns produce different characteristics in the end product.  These yarns may be used to advantage in fabrics where uniformity and a smoother surface are of prime importance.

blankets. denims. carpet. cleaning cloths. rain wear. curtains. B. underwear. apparel.  Uses include heavy weight satin and poplins. corduroy. printed fabrics. pillow cases. Open end yarns are used in pile fabrics. upholstery. rugs. dress goods. sheets. velveteen. bed spreads. terry towel and diapers. industrial and technical applications.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 12 . household. window blinds. drills.

TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 13 .B.

TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 14 .B.

 package conveyor belt for transporting the full cross-wound packages to the end of the machine (f).2 operating robots (e) on each side of the machine for cleaning.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 15 .  empty tube supply (d)  1 . B. piecing and package change. headstock (a )  and tailstock (b)  the spinning and winding units (c).

 Rotor  spinning was initially developed with two main objectives: To provide a more economical spinning system than conventional ring spinning through higher productivity.  B. and To produce yarn of a quality that matches or surpasses that of the conventional ring spinning.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 16 .

TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 17 .B.

B.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 18 .

TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 19 . termed the doffing tube  a pair of delivery rollers that feed the spun yarn to the package build device  B.a feed roller and feed plate  a saw tooth or pin covered roller called an opening roller  a tapered tube known as a fibre transport channel  a shallow cup called as rotor (which includes a groove cut into the circumference at the maximum internal radius of the rotor referred to as the rotor groove)  a flange tube facing the rotor base and co-axial to the rotor.

TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 20 . Preparation of the sliver  Fibre Opening  Fibre transfer B.

B.  Satisfactory yarn strength and consistency are usually obtained most economically from two draw frame passages.  Insufficient drawing passages results in an inferior yarn quality. The need for the right quality of sliver determines whether one or two draw frame passages are required after carding for short staple fibres.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 21 .  Too many drawing passages decrease the feed sliver cohesion.

trailing and both ends.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 22 .  However. fibres with trailing hooks have less of a negative influence on rotor yarn strength and irregularity than on ring-spun yarns. by the drafting action. to parallelize and straighten fibres particularly those with hooked ends whether leading. B. The basic purpose of the draw frame passages is to obtain a uniform and well blended sliver through the doubling action at the draw frame and.

B. the rollers may be fed with auto-leveled card sliver in which a small percentage of longer fibre has been blended. In such circumstances. but may be too short for roller drafting. fine and strong as the longer fibres from which they have been removed. such as cotton comber noil or card flat strips.  Waste fibres.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 23 . Fewer doublings or a heavier feed sliver count gives poorer spinning results. A typical mean fibre length in these cases is 9 to 12 mm. are typically as clean.

delivers them to the feed tube in which the airflow takes them to the rotor.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 24 . and.  The trash particles are extracted by centrifugal forces in the first 90 degree of the opening roller revolution.  B.  The majority of rotor machines use a 50-80 mm diameter steel opening roller (also known as an opener. after two or three rotations. beater roller or disintegrator) which functions in a manner similar to that of the taker-in roller on a carding machine.The opening roller removes the fiber from the sliver as it is fed in.

 If fibre feed is too slow. B. the result is a longer operating time for the opening roller.  If the fibre feed is too fast. particularly with thick sliver. depending on the machine design. it will spend less time in the opening roller and opening will be inadequate. It is designed to be fed by sliver usually ranging from about 40-300 times thicker than the yarn count to be produced.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 25 . leading to fibre damage and excessive dust formation.

B.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 26 .

however. that too slow a speed tends to cause fibre lapping and irregularly spaced thick and thin places in the yarn.  Basically the opening roller speed should be as low as possible. The tooth shape (i.e. frictional coefficient and opening roller speed are all critical for successful spinning.  It is important to note. face angle and tooth tip configuration). B.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 27 . surface roughness.

TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 28 . increased opening roller speed causes higher dust formation.  It can even cause fibre melting in the case of thermoplastic fibres. higher fiber damage. reduction in yarn strength and breaking elongation. On the other hand. B.

improved yarn evenness and lower imperfection (thick and thin places. a reduced wrapping tendency. depending on the type of fibre and the roller design B.  The opening roller surface speed is usually selected from within the range 800-2500 m/min.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 29 . neps) in the yarn. This needs to be balanced with the fact that a higher opening roller speed also results in better trash extraction. better sliver opening.

TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 30 . because of the increased fibre surface area B. even when the feed rate in mass per unit time is constant increased fibre length the use of three-dimensional crimped fibre (compared with two-dimensional crimp) the use of finer fibres.A higher opening speed may be required to provide increased opening force in the following circumstances:     increased feed sliver count.

 Opening roller service life is considerably affected by the fiber material as well as by the dirt content in the fibre. The card clothing used on the opening roller is usually of the rigid metallic type.5 points/cm 2 for cotton to 80° or 100° and 15 points/cm 2 for manmade fibres. varying from a face angle of about 65° and 18.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 31 . B.

g.  Service life can be extended by the shape of the tooth (e.  Diamond-coated opening rollers have proved excellent in this respect. sickle shape.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 32 . rounded tooth tip) and by tooth coating. B. The main wear points are the tooth face and tooth tip.  Coated teeth show much lower levels of wear.

TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 33 .0.5 to 4. aided by centrifugal acceleration.  The higher ratios result in a higher yarn tenacities because of the improved fibre orientation. B.  The ratio of air speed to opener surface speed should be in the region of 1. Removal of fibres from the opening roller is by controlled air flow.

After opening. the rotor tends to accumulate tufts of fibres.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 34 .  The fibres passing along the feed tube are in a relaxed state.  B. As a result fibre tensions are much more evenly distributed in yarn.  Ideally the fibre should pass down the feed tube one at a time. the fibres are conveyed to the collecting surface of the rotor through a feed tube. thereby increasing yarn irregularity. but in practice the average number of fibres in the feed tube cross section can be as many as four.  If too many fibres are fed along side each other. causing less fibre migration than in ring spun yarns.

B.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 35 .

B.TECH – TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY 3rd YEAR 1st SEM 36 .

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