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PRESENTED BY

LOKESH SAKHLA

PRESENTATION ON

&

VIKRANT CHANDRAKAR

UNDER THE ABLE GUIDANCE OF

**Dr. JYOTIRMAY MATHUR
**

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,

MALVIYA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY JAIPUR

CONTENT:

Meaning of the Term Pinch Technology Basis of Pinch Technology Objectives of Pinch Analysis Development of Pinch Technology Approach

**Areas of Applications of Pinch Technology
**

Case Study

**WHAT IS PINCH TECHNOLOGY?
**

Meaning of the term “Pinch Technology”

The term “Pinch Technology” was introduced by Linnhoff and Vredeveld to represent a new set of thermodynamically based methods that guarantee minimum energy levels in design of heat exchanger networks. The term ‘Pinch Analysis’ is often used to represent the application of the tools and algorithms of Pinch Technology for studying industrial processes

Second Law of Thermodyanamics. . First Law of Thermodynamics.BASIS OF PINCH TECHNOLOGY Pinch Technology based on the basic law of thermodynamics.

. Thus.OBJECTIVES OF PINCH ANALYSIS To match cold and hot process streams with a network of exchangers so that demands for externally supplied utilities are minimized. the prime objective of pinch analysis is to achieve financial savings by better process heat integration .

DEVELOPMENT OF PINCH APPROACH TRADITIONAL VS PINCH APPROACH .

AREAS OF APPLICATIONS OF PINCH TECHNOLOGY Energy saving in industries like: Iron and steel Food and drink Textile industries Paper and cardboard Cement Oil industries .

.

1. Cold Streams‟.IDENTIFICATION OF THE HOT. Utility Streams‟ . COLD AND UTILITY STREAMS IN THE PROCESS „Hot Streams‟ . .

2. CP = m x Cp Enthalpy Change. Heat capacity flow rate (CP kW/ oC) : the product of flow rate (m) in kg/sec and specific heat (Cp kJ/kg 0C). THERMAL DATA EXTRACTION FOR PROCESS & UTILITY STREAMS Supply temperature (TS oC) : the temperature at which the stream is available.TT) . H = CP x (TS . Target temperature (TT oC) : the temperature the stream must be taken to.

DT(min)=Hot stream temp(Th)-Cold stream temp(Tc) . This DTmin value represents the bottleneck in the heat recovery.3. SELECTION OF INITIAL DTMIN VALUE Temperature of the hot and cold streams at any point in the exchanger must always have a minimum temperature difference (DTmin).

DT MINIMUM .

4. CONSTRUCTION OF COMPOSITE CURVES .

.

. ESTIMATION OF MINIMUM ENERGY COST TARGETS the unit cost of each utility is known. the total energy cost can be calculated using the energy equation given below.5.

6. and total heat transferred (Q). the distribution of area between the exchangers AREA TARGETING: The calculation of surface area for a single counter-current heat exchanger requires the knowledge of the temperatures of streams in and out ( TLM i. 3. Log Mean Temperature Difference or LMTD). ESTIMATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK ( HEN ) CAPITAL COST TARGETS The capital cost of a heat exchanger network is dependent upon three factors:1.e. The area is given by the relation Area = Q / [ U x TLM ] . the number of exchangers. the overall network area. overall heat transfer coefficient (U-value). 2.

.

no heat transfer is allowed across the pinch and so a realistic target for the minimum number of units (NminMER) is the sum of the targets evaluated both above and below the pinch separately.6. In designing for the minimum energy requirement (MER). the HEN can be evaluated prior to HEN design by using a simplified form of Euler’s graph theorem. NminMER=[Nh+Nc+Nu–1]AP +[Nh+Nc+Nu–1]BP Where : Nh = Number of hot streams Nc = Number of cold streams Nu = Number of utility streams AP / BP : Above / Below Pinch .. ESTIMATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK ( HEN ) CAPITAL COST TARGETS CONTINUED…. NUMBER OF UNITS TARGETING: For the minimum number of heat exchanger units (Nmin) required for MER (minimum energy requirement or maximum energy recovery).

OF HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK ( HEN ) CAPITAL HEN TOTAL CAPITAL COST TARGETING: The targets for the minimum surface area (Amin) and the number of units (Nmin) can be combined together with the heat exchanger cost law to determine the targets for HEN capital cost (CHEN).. . The equation used for calculating the total capital cost and exchanger cost law is given below.6. The capital cost is annualized using an annualization factor that takes into account interest payments on borrowed capital. ESTIMATION COST TARGETS CONTINUED….

Energy-Capital Cost Trade Off (Optimum DTmin) .

7. b. ESTIMATION OF OPTIMUM DTMIN VALUE BY ENERGY-CAPITAL TRADE OFF a. c. A decrease in DTmin values result in lower energy costs and higher capital costs. An increase in DTmin values result in higher energy costs and lower capital costs. . An optimum DTmin exists where the total annual cost of energy and capital costs is minimized.

8. selects a higher value (15 0C) and calculates the marginal increases in utility duties and area requirements. the higher value of DTmin is selected as the practical pinch point for the HEN design. ESTIMATION OF PRACTICAL TARGETS FOR HEN DESIGN A very small DTmin value. perhaps 8 0C. can lead to a very complicated network design with a large total area due to low driving forces. . If the marginal cost increase is small. in practice. The designer.

PINCH ANALYSIS EXAMPLE: .

.

.

. No heat transfer across the Pinch.WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PINCH TEMPERATURE? No external heating below the Pinch. No external cooling above the Pinch.

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CASE STUDY: PINCH TECHNOLOGY APPLIED IN A HOSPITAL .

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applied: 388.3 kW Power requirment after Pinch Tech. Of Diesel Economical Saving: 100.64(38% of saving) Equivalent Saving:246 kLt.64kW Net Power Saving: 236.000 USD .RESULTS Power requirement in Base Line condition: 625.

. General Process Improvements Through Pinch Technology B. T. Univ of Manchaster. June 1988 Pinch Technology Has Come of Age B. Union Carbide Corp. Croft L.REFERENCES: Doe Energy Audit Workbook for Hospital NTIS USA 1978 Energy efficiency By Eastop. Don R. U..R.U.Chemical Engineering Progress.K. Linnhoff.T. Journal Of Clinical Engg.K.Vredeveld. Univ of Manchaster.Ostroy. July 1984 .K and V. Linnhoff March Ltd.Sahdev. Chemical Engineering Progress. Energy Conservation in Large Hospital in Medical Centre.D.Polley. U. D. Linnhoff and G.

THANK YOU .

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