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DM PLANT

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DEMINERALISATION OF WATER
NEED FOR DEMINERALISATION: Raw water contains various dissolved salts & suspended solids.For use as feed in boiler these are to be removed as they may get deposited in heat transfer zones thereby restricting heat transfer & may lead to corrosion also.Typical DM Water will have pH around 6.8 , Conductivity < 0.2 umhos/cm, Silica<20 ppb where as raw water is having conductivity ~ 350 & silica 16 ppm.
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RAW WATER
SOURCE: Raw water of Godavari is taken from Pochampad Dam to Balancing Reservoir from which the water is actually drawn for the plant. Characteristics:In general our raw water has high dissolved solids content & low suspended solids & is scaling in nature.Our water contains comparatively higher colloidal silica (particles of size 10-4 cms to 10-7 cms)

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RAW WATER CHARACTERSTIC


PARAMETER pH Conductivity Turbidity Calcium Magnesium Silica Iron Sodium Potassium Sulphate Chloride
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UNIT

TYPICAL VALUE 8.4 350 <10 65 50 15 95 60 5 22 25


4

umhos/cm NTU ppm as CaCO3 ppm as CaCO3 ppm as SiO2 ppb ppm as CaCO3 ppm as CaCO3 ppm as CaCO3 ppm as CaCO3
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TREATMENT OF RAW WATER


The raw water is converted to Demineralized water in two stages namely Pre treatment & Ion Exchange. PRE TREATMENT: This is done to remove suspended solids & organic matter. The suspended solids are generally negatively charged particles which are neutralized by positively charged ions of coagulant e.g. Al+3 of alum. Treatment is achieved by allowing coagulation,flocculation & sedimentation as sludge in a clarifier.Depending on the nature of turbidity giving particles, proper coagulant strength & contact time are the essential for proper treatment. Colloidal particles also get trapped in flocs & get removed. This is best at pH ~6.5 - 7.0 & higher retention time.
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PRE TREATMENT contd..


For removing the organic matter chlorine as a biocide is dosed in clarifier. It is essential to remove organic matter because it may lead to fouling of ion exchange resin in DM Plant. Also the organic matter at high temperature may get converted to CO2 & cause metal corrosion in boiler system.To completely eliminate the organic matter a slight excess of chlorine is dosed (~ 0.5 ppm at Clarifier O/l).

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PRE TREATMENT contd..


The clarified water so produced is passed through filter beds (Graded Sand / Anthracite can be used) to remove any floating turbid matter.This is called filtered water.This water is being used for drinking purpose & for demineralization.

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DEMINERALIZATION

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DEMINERALISATION
Excess chlorine is removed in ACF.At ACF O/l Turbidity <0.1 NTU & Free Cl2 <0.1ppm. The adsorbed chlorine is released by backwash whenever Free Cl2 >0.1ppm or the end of rated cycle whichever is earlier. After this the water enters the Cation regenerative type ion exchanger resin beds(weak & strong) where the cations in water are replaced with H+.Thus at the Strong cation O/l we have weak & strong acids. R-H + NaCl --------->RCl + HCl 2 R-H + CaSO4 ------> 2RCa + H2SO4 2R-H + 2CaHCO3------> 2RCa + 2H2CO3
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DEMINERALISATION
After exchange of cations, it is led to degasser.The bicarbonates exchanged in cations form carbonic acid (H2CO3). In the degasser the water is sprayed from top & stream of air (which has very less CO2 content) is blown in counter direction.The C02 from H2CO3 is released. H2CO3 H2O + O2 The process is similar to removal of dissolved Oxygen in Dearator by using steam

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DEMINERALIZATION
The degassed water is pumped through regenerative type anion ion exchanger resin beds ( weak & strong ) where anions are replaced with OH- & water is formed .

R-OH + HCl RCl + H20 2 R-OH + H2SO4 R2SO4 +2H20 At anion O/l, pH 8-9,Conductivity < 20 umhos/cm , Silica< 200 ppb will be achieved.

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DEMINERALIZATION
There is a chance that at after completion of exchange through cations & anions beds, some ions may slip through un-exchanged.These are exchanged in Mixed bed which contains strong cation & anion resin. At Mixed bed O/l the water has following parameter: pH ~ 6.8 -7 , Conductivity < 0.2 umhos/cm, Silica < 20 ppb

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DEMINERALISATION
During the service the following parameters are monitored for quality & optimizing chemical consumption:

Sample Clarified water Chlorine ACF O/l Degasser O/l SBA O/l MB O/l
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Parameter pH,Turbidity,Free Turbidity, Free Chlorine FMA, CO2 pH, Conductivity,Silica pH, Conductivity,Silica
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DEMINERALIZATION
Stage 1 DM Plant was erected by DRIPLEX. Lewatite make macroporous resin is used. There are 3 streams with maximum output 90 M3/hr.Output between regeneration is 1600 M3 Stage 2 DM Plant was erected by Degremont. Duolite make gel type resin is used. There are 3 streams with maximum output 130 M3/hr. Output between regeneration is 2200 M3 There are 6 DM Water tank each 1500 M3.

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DEMENARALIZATION
After completion of the rated cycle of production or any observed deviation in the parameter the strong cation bed is regenerated with 5% HCl. The eluent of SAC during acid injection is used for regenerating WAC. The anion beds are regenerated with 5% NaOH. The eluent of SBA during alkali injection is used for regenerating WBA. All the effluent are collected in neutralization pit where it is neutralized & disposed

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NEED FOR TREATMENT OF DM WATER


The DM Water so produced is highly corrosive. Corrosion is minimum in the pH range 8.8 to 9.2 where as pH of DM Water is 7 .It is saturated with Oxygen which is around 8 ppm & it aids corrosion. In order to minimize corrosion it is imperative to treat this.At the initial the internal surface in Boiler circuit is cleaned by alkali boil out & acid , then it is passivated by Hydrazine & Ammonia to generate protective coating of magnetite layer (Fe3O4). During service it is important to keep this layer intact for containing corrosion.Basically there are 2 types of treatment available for this

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BOILER WATER TREATMENT


All volatile treatment: In this only Hydrazine & Ammonia is used to maintain the required pH, Dissolved Oxygen etc. Generally dosing is done in Dearator O/l. At Stage 1 we follow this method but by dosing only Hydrazine. Hydrazine works to protect & growth of magnetite layer, Oxygen removal & it converts to Ammonia at higher temperature to maintain pH. Ammonia is used to maintain pH. N2H4 Fe Fe3O4 N2H4 + O2 N2 + H2O N2H4 >250 Deg C NH3 This treatment is suggested by ANSALDO.
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BOILER WATER TREATMENT Another treatment is Solid based treatment.This is achieved by maintaining the drum pH by adding combination of Di-Sodium Phosphate - Trisodium phosphate by way of coordinated phosphate control method. Here also the pH & dissolved Oxygen control of the steam water cycle is maintained by adding of Ammonia & Hydrazine in the feed cycle at Dearator O/l , CPU O/l . Provision also exists for wetlay pump dosing directly to boiler drum in case of emergency to maintain pH.This is suggested by BHEL to take care of any ingress of foreign ions into the system.Phosphate will form a sludge with various ions & can be blown out through CBD.

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The limits of various parameters at Stage 1 are as follows:


PARAMETERS UNITS CBD SAMPLES FEED SUPER HEATED CONDENSATE

BOILER WATER TREATMENT

STEAM

pH
Sp. Cond.
Cation Cond. Silica Hydrazine Ammonia Dissolved O2 Chloride Copper Iron

8.7 - 9.3 8.5 9.3 5 < 0.3 < 0.02 0.05- 0.150 <5 5 10

8.8 9.3 5 < 0.3 < 0.02 < 0.6 -

8.7 9.2 5 < 0.3 < 0.02 < 0.6 < 20 5 10

mhos/cm 10 mhos/cm Ppm 0.2 Ppm Ppm Ppb Ppb 120 Ppb Ppb -

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BOILER WATER TREATMENT


The limits for various parameters Stage 2 are as follows:

PARAMETERS UNITS
CBD FEED

SAMPLES
SATURATED SUPER HEATED STEAM STEAM
9.0 9.2 < 0.2 9.0 9.2 <0.2

CONDENSATE

pH Sp. Conductivity mhos/cm Cation Conductivity mhos/cm

9.1 9.4 20 -

9.0 9.2 <0.2

9.0 9.2 <0.2

Phosphate Silica Hydrazine Ammonia Dissolved Oxygen Chloride Iron


Copper Sodium

PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB Ppb Ppb


Ppb ppb

1-2 < 0.1 500 -

< 0.01 10-20 <5 10


3 -

< 0.01 5

< 0.01 10
3 5

< 0.01 1.0 < 40 10


3 5

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BOILER WATER TREATMENT


Condensate Polishing units (CPU ) containing regenerative type ion exchange resin are provided at Stage 2 for

Taking CRUD load of the system. Acting as a polisher for Condensate especially in case of condenser leak. Faster stabilization during light up.
During service the CPU O/l is monitored for pH, Cation Conductivity (max 0.1 umhos/cm ), Chloride(max 3 ppb). The service cycle of CPU consists of H+ cycle (when cations are exchanged with H+) & NH3 cycle (when cations are exchanged with NH4+).During the H+ cycle , dosing of Ammonia at CPU O/l is essential to maintain the pH of the system.

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BOILER WATER TREATMENT

Possible reasons for Chemistry Excursion:

Parameter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Sodium X X X X Chloride X XX X Sulphate X X X X X Silicon X X X X pH X X XXX X Conductivity X X X X X D.O X X X TOC X X X X X Na / PO4 X Free Hydroxide X Ammonia X Phosphate X Iron X X X Copper X X X 1-Insufficient Boiler Blowdown, 2-Condenser Leak, 4- Make up Deminelizer 5- Phosphate Feed System 7- Hydrazine Feed System 8- Air Ingress 10.-Feed water D.O 11-Feed water pH

3- Condensate Polisher 6- Ammonia Feed System 9- Dearator 12-Polisher Resin Leak

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Boiler Tube Failure can result from (as per EPRI):


Improper boiler chemistry / poor feed water. Short term overheating & long term creep/ starvation of tubes. Operation with known boiler tube / Condenser leakage. Operation with overfiring / excessive flue gas velocity/ high furnace temperature. Inadequate lay up protections Drum level fluctuations Fly ash / soot blower erosion Insufficient boiler blow down, non-operation of low point drains & Dearator pegging especially during startup. Improper preservation of boiler during shut downs etc.

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BOILER WATER CHEMISTRY


Welding failure / Improper weld/ Dissimilar metal weld. Material defect / use of improper material during overhaul / repair Use of excessive force to remove boiler ash deposit Tubing distorted or out of alignment resulting in stress areas. Pulverisers / Mill fineness out of specifications. Burners out of alignment Soot blowers out of service due to need for maintenance. Metal weld pieces / debris left after weld going inside tube / drum. Improper Boiler tube thickness survey periodically / NDT 14th June 2007 24 survey (after weldsPMI / during overhauls) Revision 00

BOILER WATER CHEMISTRY


Preservation of boiler : Up to 3 days: pH 9.5 , Hydrazine 10 ppm > 3 days &<10 days : pH 10, Hydrazine 50 ppm up to one month: pH 10, Hydrazine 200 ppm Positive pressure of 1 - 2 Kg has to be maintained. Above parameters to be monitored daily once.

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BOILER WATER CHEMISTRY


Start up after overhaul:
Steam purity to be ensured before admitting to turbine by : Condensate dumping (Ensure Condensate purity) Operation of LP drains(Removal of debris / crud etc) Dearator pegging with steam:Removal of Oxygen is effective above 150 0 C by Hydrazine N2H4+O2---> N2 +2H2O else 3N2H4 ----> 4NH3 + N2 EBD operation (removal of suspended other solids from drum / prevent carry over) Following the pressure restriction w.r.to silica.

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BOILER CHEMISTRY
Shut down:
Shut down as per OEM / guidelines Forced cooling should be avoided. All vents & drains of Super heaters & Reheaters should be operated when drum pressures comes down to ~ 3Kg/cm2 to avoid stagnant condensate in these area resulting in corrosion. Water wall & Economiser draining may be carried out 100 0 C below drum metal temperature.

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BOILER WATER TREATMENT


At Stage 1 the Generator rotor & stator is cooled by Hydrogen. In Stage 2 the rotor is cooled by hydrogen & stator windings by DM Water.The Hydrogen gas is monitored for purity & dew point. The stator cooling is done by treated DM Water. The pH is maintained by auto dosing of NaOH solution via alkaliser. In addition the Stator cooling system consist of filters & Stator polishing unit to take care of any ingress of impurity. Monitoring is done for pH, Conductivity,Copper, Iron, Dissolved Oxygen. Removal of D.O is done as per Henrys law in an expansion tank by purging using extra pure N2.

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CW SYSTEM
Heat is dissipated from condenser ,by circulation of cooling water. We are having open recirculation type CW system.As the circulating water absorbs heat from the condenser & dissipates the heat in cooling tower, only the pure water evaporates leaving the salts behind.Hence over a period of time the circulating water gets concentrated. This is expressed in terms of COC (Cycle of Concentration). COC is the ratio of concentration of reference ion in the system to concentration of reference ion in raw water.If Concentration of Mg in CW is 100 PPM & that in raw in 50 PPM. The COC is 2.Similarly the COC can be determined by knowing the concentration of Magnesium, Chloride & SiO 00etc. 14th June 2007 29 PMI Revision 2

CW SYSTEM
As the COC increases, the concentration of salts & organic matter increases.This severely enhances the scaling & bio-fouling tendency.In general the solubility increases with increase of temperature. In case of Calcium Carbonate solubility decreases with increase of temperature. & tend to deposit as scales in tubes even at 35 Deg C.This is more pronounced in case of RSTPS, the raw water pH~8.5 & high Ca content & hence scaling nature.To control CaCO3 from depositing organophosphonate is being continuously dosed.This will keep CaCO3 in dissolved form. Dosing of Chlorine as a biocide is done to contain biofouling.However at higher pH its effectiveness as biocide is reduced. It is max at pH ~ 7- 8.
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CW TREATMENT

For treatment of water, various treatments are available e.g. use of softeners, LWTP etc. At our project we have Liquid Waste Treatment Plant with following advantages:

Conserving fresh water, as blow down shall be minimal & make up will be minimal. Operation at high COC possible without scaling problem. Effective chlorination, lesser problem of bio-fouling, microbiological fouling etc.
LWTP is basically a side stream filtration system, in which ~ 2 % of the CW water is drawn & passed through sand filters & put back to system.Simultaneously, sulphuric acid is dosed in the channel to bring the pH~8. The advantage of this is that the CaCO3 gets converted to CaSO4. Solubility of CaSO4 is very high as compared to CaCO3. So system can hold more sulphate than carbonate, hence high COC is possible. To keep the salts in dissolved form organophosphonate is dosed which sequesters the Ca & not allowing it to get deposited.

After completion of PG test , LWTP is in operation with COC ~3.7 at stage 2.


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Effluent Treatment Plant


To conserve water & meet the PCB norms on effluent discharge the effluent treatment plant was brought up at RSTPS.As our raw water is having high Calcium content, the coal in this area is also having high Calcium content.Due to this ash water pH is 11-12. Ash water cannot be used be directly for further handling of ash because it is already saturated with Calcium. There is a need for treatment of this ash water.In effluent treatment plant water from CHP area, Ash pond overflow & main plant effluent is treated . Effluent of CHP is led to Coal Slurry settling pond (CSS) where coal particles settle.The clear water is taken to Central Monitoring bay where main plant drain mixes.This water is pumped to clarifier I/l where ash water comes by gravity from ash pond.In the reactive clarifier water gets clarified. 14th June 2007 32 PMI Revision 00

EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


At the O/l of the clarifier,Hydrochloric acid is dosed to maintain pH~8.The clear water is used for ash handling or let out as effluent. The sludge of clarifier is led to sludge thickener. The clear water is led to drain & sludge sent to ash slurry pp house sump St1. Now MPDT(Main Plant drain treatment ) is added to ETP. Here the TSS of main plant effluent will be treated by dosing coagulant & allowing settlement in tube settlers.Water shall be drawn from Central monitoring bay & after clarification sent back to bay. Total water recycled in ETP (2001-02): 41217385 M3 (4700 M3/Hr)
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Environmental Parameters
Stack Emission: As per the latest consent order of APPCB, the limits are: SPM: 115 mg/NM3 (earlier 150 mg/NM3 ) SOx & NOx : No limit specified. However chimney height 225 Mtrs is specified for greater dispersion & distribution of emission. Ambient air: As per the latest consent order of APPCB, the present limits are as per residential area norms instead of industrial area norms earlier: SPM: 200 ug/M3 (Earlier 500 ug/M3 ) RPM:100 ug/M3 (Earlier no limit specified ). SOx :80 ug/M3 (Earlier 120 ug/M3 ) NOx: 80 ug/M3 (Earlier 120 ug/M3 ) * Fortnight monitoring in-house is being done for all these 14th June 2007 34 PMI Revision 00 parameters

THANK YOU

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