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Colonial Era

Columbus discovered America in 1492,and brought gold and wealth back to Spain,in order to balance Spainish supremacy in Europe, Portugal has to find a way..

COLONIZATION

Malaysia was once a colonized land. Was subjugated by other powers for total period of 446 years since 1511 until 1957. Portuguese 1511-1641 Dutch 1641-1824 British 1824-1942 Japan 1942-1945 British 1945-1957

COLONIZATION

Portuguese, Dutch, British, Japanese and British had colonized the country before. But only British and Japanese colonized the whole country and left impact on the people

COLONIZATION

Colonists and the Features of Domination

Portuguese Colonization
Chronicles that brings to Malacca colonization by Portuguese

Sequent of Events

1488- Bartholomew Diaz discovered route from Europe to Cape of Good Hope, Africa. 1498-Vasco Da Gama sailed to India, and built settlement in Calicut. 1509- Alfonso de Albuquerque appointed as Vice Roy in India, and sent a trade group to Malacca led by Lopez de Sequiera. 1510- Portuguese conquered Goa. 1511- Portuguese attacked and captured Malacca.

Lukisan menggambarkan kedatangan orang Portugis ke Negeri Melaka pada tahun 1509. Bangsa Portugis merupakan orang Eropah pertama menjejakkan kaki ke Melaka

Pemandangan Bandar Melaka oleh pelukis Portugis pada tahun 1511

Reasons for Portuguese to go East


Control the spice trade ( spice ingredients of preservation) Control important trade route to the East, to balance the superiority of Arabs traders and Spaniards. Discover the sea route to the east through Cape of Good Hope Process superior sea power and naval expertise Spread Christianity

PORTUGUESE COLONIZATION

In 1511, the Vice Roy of India, Alfonso de Albuquerque, organized an expedition to attack Malacca. Albuquerque captured Malacca on 24 August 1511 with superior artillery.

PORTUGUESE COLONIZATION

A fortress, A Famosa, was built in November 1511 to defend Malacca from any attacks.

PORTUGUESE COLONIZATION

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Reasons Malacca fell to Portuguese:Administrative inefficiency by Sultan Mahmud. Conflict between Malays and Tamil Muslim Disloyalty of the traders. Establishment of Acheh as a new port.

PORTUGUESE COLONIZATION

Melakas fall gave Portugal the control over the main Asia main trade routes

PORTUGUESE COLONIZATION

Introduced own system to strengthen political and economic position in the East Posts of Bendahara, Temenggung and Syahbandar were remained but limited jurisdictions

PORTUGUESE COLONIZATION

Portuguese mercantile policy displayed extreme greed Traders had to pay high tax, sell goods at low price and obtain special permit before conducting business

PORTUGUESE COLONIZATION

In their greed to control spice trade Muslims traders were treated poorly they later turned to other ports like Johor, Acheh and Demak

PORTUGUESE COLONIZATION

Missionary work began

Johor and Acheh were main enemies and there were threatening Malaccas security

PORTUGUESE COLONIZATION

With assistance from Johor, Dutch defeated Portuguese After 130 years of occupation, Portuguese fell to the Dutch

Dutch Colonization

Portugal became the richest country in Europe after Malacca fell, Lisbon became important port in spice trade. Dutch established V.O.C in 1602 to compete with the Portuguese

Dutch Colonization

Dutch and Johor had relationships since 1606, the Dutch granted Johor supremacy and Johor will help the Dutch to oust Portuguese from Malacca. Johor at that time was under the rule of Sultan Abdul Jalil. 1641, Portuguese was defeated by the Dutch and Johor.

Dutch Colonization

In 1650 Dutch, attempted to monopolize tin trade in Perak failed by opposition from the local people, and even to force the Sultan of Perak to sign a treaty to sell the tin only to the Dutch. Dutch had to give up their desire for tin monopoly following an attack by Panglima Kulup Ali in 1650 to the Dutch settlements in Pulau Pangkor and Hilir Perak.

Dutch Colonization

Johor-Dutch friendship was severely tested by commercial rivalry between the two parties
Situation reached its peak in 1782 Dutch laid siege to Riau Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie

Dutch Colonization

Meanwhile in Selangor, Sultan Ibrahim whom the Dutch accused for not wanting to sell the tin and for favoring the English East India Company. Sultan Ibrahim (with help from Rembau and Raja Haji) attacked the Dutch

Dutch Colonization
Attack failed conflict between Selangor and Dutch dragged on to 1786 Dutch tried its best to stifle Johors power 1784 agreement Sultan Mahmud III was forced to surrender Riau ( Riau Indonesia was once under the Johor Sultanate)

Dutch Colonization

The Sultans disenchantment was intensified when the Dutch sent a Resident to Riau. 1787 Johor launched a military attack on Dutch in Riau later Dutch recaptured Riau in the same year

Objectives of the Dutch Colonization

To dominate the spice trade ( Maluku Island) To dominate tin industry in the Malay states To chase out Portuguese from the Malay archipelago.

BRITISH COLONIZATION OF PENANG, SINGAPORE AND MELAKA

Britains colonization of Penang was achieved through deception and aggressiveness by Francis Light

BRITISH COLONIZATION

Penang was considered strategically located to serve as a military as well as commercial base.
Penang was part of the territory of Kedah.

Back then

BRITISH COLONIZATION

Kedah was facing threats from Siam and Burma Sultan Muhammad Jiwa offered British to set up settlements for protection in case of an attack

BRITISH COLONIZATION

Offer was not taken reoffered by Sultan Abdullah (due to threats in the palace and external factors)
Sultan Muhammad Jiwa laid out several conditions:

British would protect the waters of Kedah


Enemies of Kedah considered enemies of British too Expenses incurred in war would be borne by East India company

BRITISH COLONIZATION

Ships could trade freely in Kedah or Penang


Compensation of $30 000 peso paid to Sultan British would protect Kedah from enemy attack

BRITISH COLONIZATION

Francis Light signed the agreement without obtaining permission form his superiors in India.
Later, East India Company turned down Kedahs conditions to safeguard their interests with Siam and Selangor

BRITISH COLONIZATION

Sultan Abdullah ordered British to leave Penang


The situation become tense when British refused to leave. British attacked Seberang Perai before Kedah could take any action

BRITISH COLONIZATION

serious defeat on Kedah


Sultan was forced to accept Britishs conditions imposed by the British in 1791

BRITISH COLONIZATION

Britishs conditions:
acknowledging Britishs right to occupy Penang with annual payment of $6000 peso as compensation With this agreement, British colonial rule of Penang began

BRITISH COLONIZATION

British in Penang had difficulty in obtaining food supplies as Penang depended for the supply of food. Kedah tried to obstruct the supply of food to Penang

BRITISH COLONIZATION

Being weak Kedah was in no position to resist British pressure.


handing over Seberang Perai in 1800. Under this agreement, Sultan will receive Annual compensation of $10 000 peso paid No indication of protection given for Kedah

BRITISH IN SINGAPORE

British realized that Penangs geographical position was too far to the north. Began to look for new base elsewhere in the region close to the Straits of Malacca Task was given to Stamford Raffles Stamford Raffles found Singapore and considered it suitable

BRITISH COLONIZATION

Raffles found out that there was a succession dispute between two sons of the Johor ruler Sultan Mahmud III Raffles recognized Tengku Husin (the elder son) as the Sultan of Johor

BRITISH COLONIZATION

In gratitude of Raffles support, Tengku Husin allowed British to set up a settlement in Singapore through an agreement signed in 1819 Conditions of the agreement:

BRITISH COLONIZATION

British would protect Tengku Husin


Annual compensation of $3000 paid Stipulated not to have relationship with any other European power

Anglo-Dutch Treaty 1824

Was signed on 17 March 1824 with the main aim of ending all rivalry between the British and the Dutch.
A number of terms had been agreed :

Anglo-Dutch Treaty 1824


Territories to the North and east of Straits of Malacca were given to British Those to the west and south of the Straits came under Dutch influence Dutch handed over Malacca to the British in exchange for Bencoolen (Bangkahulu)

Anglo-Dutch Treaty 1824

With this exchange, three important ports in the Malay Peninsula-Penang, Singapore and Malaccawere now under control of the British. In 1826 three territories become known as the Straits Settlement

Questions

List the lessons that we learnt from colonization. State mistakes made by our people that resulted in foreign colonization.