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# Electrical and Electronics Technology

## BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

KIRCHHOFF'S RULES
KIRCHHOFF'S RULES are used in conjunction with Ohm's law in solving problems involving complex circuits:

KIRCHHOFF'S FIRST RULE or JUNCTION RULE or CURRENT LAW: The sum of all currents entering any junction point equals the sum of all currents leaving the junction point. This rule is based on the law of conservation of electric charge.
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## Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL)

The sum of all currents entering a point is equal zero.
I1
I2

I4

I3

I1 - I2 - I3 + I4 = 0 -I1 + I2 + I3 - I4 = 0 8/6/2013

or

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KCL Metaphor

From the pipe that is full of water, the amount of flow-in water must be equal to the amount of flow-out water. This is because water cannot disappear.

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## Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL)

KIRCHHOFF'S SECOND RULE or LOOP RULE or VOLTAGE LAW: The algebraic sum of all the gains and losses of potential around any closed path must equal zero. This law is based on the law of conservation of energy.

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## Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL)

The sum of all voltages in a closed loop is equal zero.
+ V2 -

V1
-

V3
-

V1 V2 V3 = 0 8/6/2013

or

-V1 + V2 + V3 = 0
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## Voltage & Current Sources Combination

3V 6A 4V 5A 4A 7A

2V

1V

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## SUGGESTIONS FOR USING KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS

1. Place a (+) sign next the long line of the battery symbol and a (-) sign next to the short line. Start choosing a direction for conventional current flow ( flow of positive charge ) If you choose the wrong direction for the flow of current in a particular branch, your final answer for the current in that branch will be negative. The negative answer indicates that the current actually flows in the opposite direction.

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## SUGGESTIONS FOR USING KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS

2. Assign a direction to the circuit in each independent branch of the circuit. Place a positive sign on the side of each resistor where the current enters and a negative sign on the side where the current exits, e.g.; This indicates that a drop in potential occurs as the current passes through the resistor .

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## SUGGESTIONS FOR USING KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS

Notice how the directions of the currents are labeled in each branch of the circuit
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SUGGESTIONS FOR USING KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS 3. Select a JUNCTION POINT and apply the junction rule, e.g., at point A in the diagram:

The junction rule may be applied at more than one junction point. In general, apply the junction rule to enough junctions so that each branch current appears in at least one equation.
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## SUGGESTIONS FOR USING KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS

4. Apply Kirchhoffs loop rule by first taking note whether there is a gain or loss of potential at each resistor and source of emf as you trace the closed loop. Remember that the sum of the gains and losses of potential must add to zero.

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## SUGGESTIONS FOR USING KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS

For example, for the left loop of the sample circuit start at point B and travel clockwise around the loop. Because the direction chosen for the loop is also the direction assigned for the current, there is a gain in potential across the battery (- to +), but a loss of potential across each resistor (+ to -). 13
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## SUGGESTIONS FOR USING KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS

Following the path of the current shown in the diagram and using the loop rule, the following equation can be written:

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## SUGGESTIONS FOR USING KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS

The direction taken around the loop is ARBITRARY. Tracing a counterclockwise path around the circuit starting at B, as shown in the diagram, there is gain in potential across each resistor to (- to +) and a drop in potential across the battery (+ to -). The loop equation would then be:
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## SUGGESTIONS FOR USING KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS

Multiplying both sides of the above equation by - 1 and algebraically rearranging, it can be shown that the two equations are equivalent. Be sure to apply the loop rule to enough closed loops so that each branch current appears in at least one loop equation. Solve for each
branch current using standard algebraic methods.
Solve simultaneous equations

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## Loop Current Analysis Example

Find the current flowing in each branch of this circuit.

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Voltage Divider

R1 V R2

+ VR1 + VR2 -

R1 VR1 V R1 R 2 R2 VR 2 V R1 R 2

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## Example: Voltage divider

Find V1

10V

2K

2K 4K

+ V1 -

2K V1 10V 3.333V 2K 4K
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Current Divider

IR1 I R1 R2

IR2

R2 I R1 I R1 R 2 R1 I R2 I R1 R 2

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## Example: Current Divider

1.333V 1mA 1.333V 1.333V

1mA

2K

4K
0.667mA 0V 0V

0.333mA

0V

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Dependent Source
The amount of voltage (current) supplied depends on other voltage (current).
+

4Ix

## Dependent Current Source

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2Vx

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Example
Find I
I 5V + Vx 4 1V 2

+ -

3Vx

## 5 4 I 1 2 I 3Vx 0, (Vx 4 I ) 5 4 I 1 2 I 12 I 0 18 I 4 I 0.222 A

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## Power and Energy

When a direct current of I amperes is flowing in an electric circuit and the voltage across the circuit is V volts, then Power, in watts P = VI Electrical energy = Power * Time = VIt joules
Unit of Energy is joule, when dealing with large amounts of energy, the unit used is the kilowatt hour (kWh)
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Ques1. A source e.m.f. of 5V supplies a current of 3A for 10 minutes. How much energy is provided in this time? Ques2. An electric heater consumes 1.8 MJ when connected to a 250V supply for 30 minutes. Find the power rating of the heater and the current taken from the supply.
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Network Theorems

## BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

This chapter introduces important fundamental theorems of network analysis. They are the

Superposition theorem Thvenins theorem Nortons theorem Maximum power transfer theorem

## BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Superposition Theorem
Used to find the solution to networks with two or more sources that are not in series or parallel. The current through, or voltage across, an element in a network is equal to the algebraic sum of the currents or voltages produced independently by each source. Since the effect of each source will be determined independently, the number of networks to be analyzed will equal the number of sources.
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Superposition Theorem
The total power delivered to a resistive element must be determined using the total current through or the total voltage across the element and cannot be determined by a simple sum of the power levels established by each source.

## Remove all the sources except the one under consideration

Currents in various resistors and their voltage drops due to this single source are calculated. This process is repeated for other sources taken one at a time. Finally algebraic sum of currents and voltage drops over a resistor due to different sources is taken.
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## Select one energy source. Remove all other sources by

replacing voltage sources with a short while retaining any internal source resistance. Replacing current sources with an open while retaining any internal resistances.

Repeat steps 1 through 2 for each other source individually. Algebraically add the contributions of each voltage or current.

## BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Thvenins Theorem
Any two-terminal dc network can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source and a series resistor.

## BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Thvenins Theorem
Thvenins theorem can be used to:
Analyze networks with sources that are not in series or parallel. Reduce the number of components required to establish the same characteristics at the output terminals. Investigate the effect of changing a particular component on the behavior of a network without having to analyze the entire network after each change.
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## Procedure to determine the proper values of RTh and ETh

1. Remove that portion of the network across which the Thvenin equation circuit is to be found. In the figure below, this requires that the load resistor RL be temporarily removed from the network.

## BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

2. Mark the terminals of the remaining twoterminal network. (The importance of this step will become obvious as we progress through some complex networks.) RTh:
3. Calculate RTh by first setting all sources to zero (voltage sources are replaced by short circuits, and current sources by open circuits) and then finding the resultant resistance between the two marked terminals. (If the internal resistance of the voltage and/or current sources is included in the original network, it must remain when the sources are set to zero.)
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ETh: 4. Calculate ETh by first returning all sources to their original position and finding the opencircuit voltage between the marked terminals.

## BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Conclusion:
5. Draw the Thvenin equivalent circuit with the portion of the circuit previously removed replaced between the terminals of the equivalent circuit. This step is indicated by the placement of the resistor RL between the terminals of the Thvenin equivalent circuit.
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## BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

remove the load. remove the voltage source, VS1 and replace with a short.
We can now calculate the current through the resistor R3.

VTH Calculation

## BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

We are now ready to solve for RTH. Remove all voltages sources Replace them with a short, and open all current sources.

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Nortons Theorem
Nortons theorem states the following:
Any two-terminal linear bilateral dc network can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of a current and a parallel resistor.

IN

RN

RL

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The steps leading to the proper values of IN and RN. Preliminary steps:
1. Remove that portion of the network across which the Norton equivalent circuit is found. 2. Mark the terminals of the remaining twoterminal network.

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Nortons Theorem
Finding RN:
3. Calculate RN by first setting all sources to zero (voltage sources are replaced with short circuits, and current sources with open circuits) and then finding the resultant resistance between the two marked terminals. (If the internal resistance of the voltage and/or current sources is included in the original network, it must remain when the sources are set to zero.) Since RN = RTh the procedure and value obtained using the approach described for Thvenins theorem will determine the proper value of RN.
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Nortons Theorem
Finding IN :
4. Calculate IN by first returning all the sources to their original position and then finding the shortcircuit current between the marked terminals. It is the same current that would be measured by an ammeter placed between the marked terminals.

Conclusion:
5. Draw the Norton equivalent circuit with the portion of the circuit previously removed replaced between the terminals of the equivalent circuit.
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Example
Find Nortons equivalent circuit and find the current that passes through RL when RL = 1
2 10V 3 2 10 RL

Find In
2 10V 3 2 10 Isc

Find R total

Find I total

## 3 12 2 3 || (10 2) 2 4.4 3 12 V 10 I 2.27 A R 4 .4

Current divider

3 I SC 2.27 0.45 A 3 12
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Find Rn
2 10V 3 2 10

RTH 10 2 || 3 2 23 10 2 23 13.2
RTH

2 3 2 10

## Nortons equivalent circuit

0.45

13.2

RL

If RL = 1, the current is

13 .2 0.45 0.418 A 13 .2 1
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## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

The maximum power transfer theorem states the following:
A load will receive maximum power from a network when its total resistive value is exactly equal to the Thvenin resistance of the network applied to the load. That is,

RL = RTh
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vS iL RS RL RL 2 2 PL iL RL v 2 S ( RS RL )
2

RS + VS RL

( RS RL ) 2 RL ( RS RL ) 2 dPL 0 vS 4 dRL ( RS RL )
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## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

For loads connected directly to a dc voltage
supply, maximum power will be delivered to the load when the load resistance is equal to the internal resistance of the source; that is, when:

RL = Rint
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1.What is RL for maximum power transfer? 2.What is maximum power transfer delivered to RL?

## BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Delta-star transformation
A
R3

A
R2

Ra

R1

----

Rc

Rb

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Delta-star transformation
R 2 R3 Ra R1 R 2 R3 R3R1 Rb R1 R 2 R3 R1R 2 Rc R1 R 2 R3
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Star-delta transformation
RbRc R1 Rb Rc Ra RcRa R 2 Rc Ra Rb RaRb R3 Ra Rb Rc
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Example

19/8 5 5

13/2

159/71