KIRCHHOFF'S RULES
KIRCHHOFF'S RULES are used in conjunction with Ohm's law in solving problems involving complex circuits:
KIRCHHOFF'S FIRST RULE or JUNCTION RULE or CURRENT LAW: The sum of all currents entering any junction point equals the sum of all currents leaving the junction point. This rule is based on the law of conservation of electric charge.
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I4
I3
I1  I2  I3 + I4 = 0 I1 + I2 + I3  I4 = 0 8/6/2013
or
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KCL Metaphor
From the pipe that is full of water, the amount of flowin water must be equal to the amount of flowout water. This is because water cannot disappear.
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V1

V3

V1 V2 V3 = 0 8/6/2013
or
V1 + V2 + V3 = 0
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3V 6A 4V 5A 4A 7A
2V
1V
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I
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Notice how the directions of the currents are labeled in each branch of the circuit
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SUGGESTIONS FOR USING KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS 3. Select a JUNCTION POINT and apply the junction rule, e.g., at point A in the diagram:
The junction rule may be applied at more than one junction point. In general, apply the junction rule to enough junctions so that each branch current appears in at least one equation.
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Following the path of the current shown in the diagram and using the loop rule, the following equation can be written:
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Voltage Divider
R1 V R2
+ VR1 + VR2 
R1 VR1 V R1 R 2 R2 VR 2 V R1 R 2
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10V
2K
2K 4K
+ V1 
2K V1 10V 3.333V 2K 4K
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Current Divider
IR1 I R1 R2
IR2
R2 I R1 I R1 R 2 R1 I R2 I R1 R 2
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1mA
2K
4K
0.667mA 0V 0V
0.333mA
0V
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Dependent Source
The amount of voltage (current) supplied depends on other voltage (current).
+
4Ix
2Vx
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Example
Find I
I 5V + Vx 4 1V 2
+ 
3Vx
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Ques1. A source e.m.f. of 5V supplies a current of 3A for 10 minutes. How much energy is provided in this time? Ques2. An electric heater consumes 1.8 MJ when connected to a 250V supply for 30 minutes. Find the power rating of the heater and the current taken from the supply.
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Network Theorems
This chapter introduces important fundamental theorems of network analysis. They are the
Superposition theorem Thvenins theorem Nortons theorem Maximum power transfer theorem
Superposition Theorem
Used to find the solution to networks with two or more sources that are not in series or parallel. The current through, or voltage across, an element in a network is equal to the algebraic sum of the currents or voltages produced independently by each source. Since the effect of each source will be determined independently, the number of networks to be analyzed will equal the number of sources.
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Superposition Theorem
The total power delivered to a resistive element must be determined using the total current through or the total voltage across the element and cannot be determined by a simple sum of the power levels established by each source.
replacing voltage sources with a short while retaining any internal source resistance. Replacing current sources with an open while retaining any internal resistances.
Repeat steps 1 through 2 for each other source individually. Algebraically add the contributions of each voltage or current.
Thvenins Theorem
Any twoterminal dc network can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source and a series resistor.
Thvenins Theorem
Thvenins theorem can be used to:
Analyze networks with sources that are not in series or parallel. Reduce the number of components required to establish the same characteristics at the output terminals. Investigate the effect of changing a particular component on the behavior of a network without having to analyze the entire network after each change.
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2. Mark the terminals of the remaining twoterminal network. (The importance of this step will become obvious as we progress through some complex networks.) RTh:
3. Calculate RTh by first setting all sources to zero (voltage sources are replaced by short circuits, and current sources by open circuits) and then finding the resultant resistance between the two marked terminals. (If the internal resistance of the voltage and/or current sources is included in the original network, it must remain when the sources are set to zero.)
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ETh: 4. Calculate ETh by first returning all sources to their original position and finding the opencircuit voltage between the marked terminals.
Conclusion:
5. Draw the Thvenin equivalent circuit with the portion of the circuit previously removed replaced between the terminals of the equivalent circuit. This step is indicated by the placement of the resistor RL between the terminals of the Thvenin equivalent circuit.
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remove the load. remove the voltage source, VS1 and replace with a short.
We can now calculate the current through the resistor R3.
VTH Calculation
We are now ready to solve for RTH. Remove all voltages sources Replace them with a short, and open all current sources.
Nortons Theorem
Nortons theorem states the following:
Any twoterminal linear bilateral dc network can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of a current and a parallel resistor.
IN
RN
RL
The steps leading to the proper values of IN and RN. Preliminary steps:
1. Remove that portion of the network across which the Norton equivalent circuit is found. 2. Mark the terminals of the remaining twoterminal network.
Nortons Theorem
Finding RN:
3. Calculate RN by first setting all sources to zero (voltage sources are replaced with short circuits, and current sources with open circuits) and then finding the resultant resistance between the two marked terminals. (If the internal resistance of the voltage and/or current sources is included in the original network, it must remain when the sources are set to zero.) Since RN = RTh the procedure and value obtained using the approach described for Thvenins theorem will determine the proper value of RN.
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Nortons Theorem
Finding IN :
4. Calculate IN by first returning all the sources to their original position and then finding the shortcircuit current between the marked terminals. It is the same current that would be measured by an ammeter placed between the marked terminals.
Conclusion:
5. Draw the Norton equivalent circuit with the portion of the circuit previously removed replaced between the terminals of the equivalent circuit.
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Example
Find Nortons equivalent circuit and find the current that passes through RL when RL = 1
2 10V 3 2 10 RL
Find In
2 10V 3 2 10 Isc
Find R total
Find I total
Current divider
3 I SC 2.27 0.45 A 3 12
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Find Rn
2 10V 3 2 10
RTH 10 2  3 2 23 10 2 23 13.2
RTH
0.45
13.2
RL
If RL = 1, the current is
13 .2 0.45 0.418 A 13 .2 1
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RL = RTh
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vS iL RS RL RL 2 2 PL iL RL v 2 S ( RS RL )
2
RS + VS RL
( RS RL ) 2 RL ( RS RL ) 2 dPL 0 vS 4 dRL ( RS RL )
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RL = Rint
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1.What is RL for maximum power transfer? 2.What is maximum power transfer delivered to RL?
Deltastar transformation
A
R3
A
R2
Ra
R1

Rc
Rb
B
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Deltastar transformation
R 2 R3 Ra R1 R 2 R3 R3R1 Rb R1 R 2 R3 R1R 2 Rc R1 R 2 R3
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Stardelta transformation
RbRc R1 Rb Rc Ra RcRa R 2 Rc Ra Rb RaRb R3 Ra Rb Rc
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Example
19/8 5 5
13/2
159/71
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