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Equipment Efficiency: Availability, Performance and Maintenance

Operations Analysis and Improvement

2010 Fall

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang Industrial and Information Management Department National Cheng Kung University
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Presentation

The role of maintenance is to insure the survivability and proper functioning of all company hardware.

Most maintenance departments are considered a necessary evil.

Investments required to improve production processes usually take on a low priority.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Presentation

Maintenance evolution, as well as maintenance technique evolution, has developed in parallel for many companies.

Remediate hardware failures. Prevent future problems with the equipment. Incorporate basic maintenance tasks into their daily production routine. Predicting equipment breakdowns.
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Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

Introduction

Maintenances primary objective is to maintain, at a high operative level, the productive resources in order to assure their service at an expected cost. Maintenance is the machines medicine. Determine the right moment to replace the equipment.

It may be better to simply unplug it.


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Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

Introduction
Thinking revolution

Elements that need maintenance.


The 5S

Poka-Yoke Visual Control

Standard operations

Jidoka Workforce optimization

TPM

One-Piece flow

1
Kanban

Multifunctional workers

11 12

20

Leveling Production

SMED

16 5

14 6 17 18 2 19 10 13 15
JUST IN TIME

4
8

Machines and tools. Facilities (compressed air, heating,) Buildings (walls, illumination,) Information and transportation systems.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Introduction
Thinking revolution

The 5S

Poka-Yoke Visual Control

Standard operations

Jidoka Workforce optimization

TPM

One-Piece flow

1
Kanban

Multifunctional workers

11 12

20

Leveling Production

SMED

16 5

14 6 17 18 2 19 10 13 15
JUST IN TIME

4
8 3

Some companies subcontract maintenance. Is contemplated in both the Just-in-time and the 20 keys (key number 9) for lean.

Improves the availability and performance rates of the equipment.


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Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

Types of maintenance

Corrective -> All industrial equipment is exposed to transitory (wear) or definitive breakdowns (catastrophic failure).

Affecting its functionality and performance. Can represent high costs for enterprises.

Preventive -> The maintenance mission cannot only be repairing the breakdowns.

They should be able to get ahead of the breakdowns.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Corrective maintenance

Also called breakdown maintenance.

Up to the 1950s it was virtually the only maintenance.


Machine stoppages hardly affected productive time. Repairs were carried out in an effective way.
Substitution

Equipment performance

Repair

Time

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU


Repair time

Time until failure

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Types of corrective maintenance

Urgent repairs.
Reestablishing the equipment into service. Repair is carried out is temperally. The remainder of the tasks will/can be scheduled for a future time.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Types of corrective maintenance

Scheduled corrective.

Appears as a result of urgent repairs.


Determine an appropriate time to repair the machine completely. After repairing the damaged component

As good as new. At least as it was before.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Repair problems

Repair tasks are performed quickly and under pressure, which can cause future problems. Repair time can be very high because replacement part(s) may have to be ordered from a supplier.
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Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

Repair problems

Accidents can take place because of poor maintenance safety measures. Corrective maintenance policy implies higher labor costs.

This policy can be justified in some cases.

Equipment with a frequent replacement policy.

Like personal office computers.


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When breakdown costs are small.


Light bulbs fail.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

Types of preventive maintenance

The preventive maintenance has two variants.

Systematic preventive maintenance. Conditional preventive maintenance or predictive maintenance.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Systematic preventive maintenance


Equipment performance Substitution

Repair

Time Time until failure Repair time

Equipment performance

1960s -> the General Electric Corporation systematized a new type of maintenance called planned maintenance.

Substitution

Intervention duration Time time until failure Dr. Tai-YueTheoretical Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Systematic preventive maintenance

Planned maintenance arrived to Japan.

Equipment performance

Substitution

Repair

Time Time until failure Repair time

The bases of this systematic preventive maintenance process were established.

Systematic substitution of some machine components.

Equipment performance

Substitution

Intervention duration

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU


Theoretical time until failure

Time

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Systematic preventive maintenance

Applied to general wear or use components.

Equipment performance

Substitution

Repair

Time Time until failure Repair time

Know with precision the components performance characteristics.

Equipment performance

Substitution

Intervention duration

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU


Theoretical time until failure

Time

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Systematic preventive maintenance

Replacement policy might call for a component to be replaced every week or in other ways such as, every 300 working hours or every 1000 parts produced.
Equipment performance

Substitution

Intervention duration Time

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

Theoretical time until failure

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Conditional preventive maintenance


Equipment performance Substitution

Intervention duration Time Theoretical time until failure

Also called predictive maintenance. Systematic preventive maintenance can become very expensive.

Equipment performance

Inspections Substitution

Intervention duration Time Theoretical failureNCKU Dr. Tai-Yue Wang time IIMuntil Dept.

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Conditional preventive maintenance

Equipment performance

Substitution

Conditional preventive maintenance is used to change components depending on their current state.

Intervention duration Time Theoretical time until failure

The useful life for costly components can be extended.

Equipment performance Inspections Substitution

Intervention duration

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU


Theoretical time until failure

Time

This type of maintenance best fits components where performance can be 19/80 monitored.

Conditional preventive maintenance

Equipment performance

Substitution

Intervention duration Time Theoretical time until failure

ISO 14000 (environmental norm) requires that industry avoid systematic preventive maintenance when working with environmentally harmful products.

Equipment performance

Inspections Substitution

Intervention duration

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU


Theoretical time until failure

Time

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Conditional preventive maintenance


Equipment performance Substitution

Predictive maintenance.

Intervention duration Time Theoretical time until failure

Look for correlations between multiple parameters and the degradation of a component.

Equipment performance

Inspections Substitution

Temperature (thermocouples), Noises (phonometer). Cracks (X-rays machine). Pressure losses (manometer).

Intervention duration Time

QS9000 recommends predictive maintenance.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU


Theoretical time until failure

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Maintenance program implementation

Almost all machines follow a similar lifecycle.

Hidden small defects.

Difficult to detect and to observe -> It does not interfere with functionality.

Increase of friction in an axle.

Apparent small defects.

Are more noticeable -> They are normally not repaired.

Small vibrations on a machine.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Maintenance program implementation

Execution under expectations.


The defects affect the equipment productivity. the standards of quality will be violated.

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Maintenance program implementation

Almost all machines follow a similar lifecycle.

Intermittent stops.

The machine intermittently produces defect parts. Small repairs are performed.
Breakdowns are frequent.

Stops and breakdowns.

Production equipment may not be as new as we would like them to be.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

Stops and breakdown stage.

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Maintenance program implementation

Production equipment typically becomes more sophisticated/complex.


More expensive every year. It has greater economic impact.

Repairs should be done at a faster rate.

Working shifts can also represent an obstacle for maintenance interventions.

Limits possible maintenance tasks and scheduling.


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Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

Maintenance program implementation

The objective of maintenance is to efficiently oversee equipment throughout the equipment life cycle.

Cover the entire lifecycle


Implementing an effective corrective maintenance. Preventive maintenance tasks. Implementing predictive maintenance strategies.

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Getting started

Become familiar with the resources that will require maintenance.

Each maintained resource should be coded (resource id#).

Code the types of breakdowns and maintenance tasks.

In a historical data study -> Group failure causes.


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Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

Getting started

Maintenance should have the following two documents.

Facility Inventory.

Lists all equipments and their principle characteristics.

Code, record number, equipment type,

Equipment History Files.

Data given by the equipment manufacturer. Information about the location in the plant. Types of spare parts needed. Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Corrective maintenance implementation

Organize, in an effective way, the corrective maintenance procedures and actions.

Breakdown occurs -> Fill out a breakdown work order.


If the worker can solve it -> fill a report. If not -> the work order will be sent to the maintenance department.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

Work request order will be issued. Maintenance workers will either repair the machine immediately or will schedule the repair. The repair can be provisional or definitive.

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Scheduled corrective maintenance

Variability in the corrective maintenance tasks duration can be problematic.

Corrective orders and flow diagrams for repetitive repairs must be developed.

Materials and spare parts that should be utilized.

Maintenance workers tasks do not end with the equipment repair.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

They should gather all the breakdown information. Describe the process that was performed. 30/80

Scheduled corrective maintenance

Each machine should have its own file with breakdown records.

Analyze breakdown causes. Anticipate future problems. This file must be upgraded with each maintenance intervention.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Scheduled corrective maintenance

Corrective maintenance tasks do not only consist on changing the broken or malfunctioning components.

Study the causes and the frequency of the breakdowns.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Preventive maintenance implementation

Avoid a breakdown of any resource, while keeping maintenance cost as low as possible. Two types of actions.

Inspections.

Observe and detect possible anomalies.

Frequent checkups that follow a specific inspection plan.

Revisions.

Scheduled equipment stops.

Systematic substitution of several machine components. Carried out during the weekend. Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Preventive maintenance implementation

Preventive maintenance tasks scheduling is mandatory in the ISO norms.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Preventive maintenance implementation

These tasks can be planned daily, weekly, monthly or even annually.

Scheduled at times when they do not affect the factorys production plan. Daily working problems force us to continuously reschedule these tasks.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Preventive maintenance implementation

Equipment preventive maintenance tasks are also called PM orders.

Each PM order should be based on a study of the equipment breakdown causes.

FMEA tool described at the tools section.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Autonomous maintenance

PM orders carried out by the production workers.

Known as user maintenance orders.

They should be simple and graphically represented.

Many inspection tasks should be carried out every day.


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Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

Autonomous maintenance

Significant amount of notices that could be easily handled by the production worker.

It takes more time to fill out the request order than to fix the problem

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Autonomous maintenance

Autonomous maintenance includes these small tasks and three daily preventive measures.

Cleaning, lubricating and checking.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Autonomous maintenance. Safety

Safety is one of the most important restrictions.

Autonomous tasks apply only for simple repair operations.

Repair or maintenance should never be performed if the knowledge required to fix the machine is high.
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Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

Autonomous maintenance. Safety

It can be very challenging to convince production workers about the importance of maintenance tasks.

They do not consider their responsibility.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Autonomous maintenance

Autonomous maintenance implementation process has a specific methodology.


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Autonomous Supervision Process Quality Assurance Autonomous Maintenance Standards Overall inspections Cleaning and Lubricating Standards Countermeasures to Sources of Contamination Initial cleaning

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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TPM - Total Productive Maintenance

In the 1970s, Nakajima developed in Japan TPM.

New maintenance management philosophy.

English translation was not published until 1988.

JIPM Japanese Institute of Plants Maintenance.

Grants the PM prize to the TPM top excellent companies.

60% of the winning companies during the first 17 years are now part of the Toyota Group or suppliers of this Group. 43/80 Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

TPM - Total Productive Maintenance

Nakajima combined preventive maintenance theories with the total quality concept.

Nakajima developed the Overall Equipment Efficiency ratio.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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TPM keys

Maximize the Overall Equipment Efficiency.

Eliminating the six big losses.

Autonomous maintenance implementation.

In order to terminate the I operate, you repair mind set. Improving the equipments maintainability.
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Preventive engineering.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

TPM keys

Training workers for maintenance improvements.

Propose methods for increasing the equipment availability.

Initial equipment management. The objective of the TPM -> Zero Breakdowns.

Utilize tools such as the P-M analysis -> Explained in tools section. 46/80 Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

RCM - Reliability Centered Maintenance

RCM was created in the United States in the 1960s, to optimize the reliability of aeronautical equipment.

RCM was not utilized in nuclear power stations until the 1980s. Recently has been implemented in the industrial world.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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RCM - Reliability Centered Maintenance

Needs a complete maintenance and breakdown record for each item of equipment.

RCM objective is to determine the maintenance tasks that are more effective for the critical components.

FMEA, reliability analysis, statistical techniques.

It is necessary to have a preventive maintenance program implemented and running properly.


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Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

FMEA for equipment

All defects have a root cause, and to eliminate future defects an action must be carried out.

Defect -> Gap between two elements Cause -> Lack of lubrication or a loose fastener. Action -> Grease or tighten the lose element.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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FMEA for equipment

To determine a good preventive maintenance plan, all the possible breakdowns, their causes and their corrective actions must be analyzed.

The main tool to carry out this type of analysis is the FMEA for equipment (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis).

Is a guide to analyze, in an organized manner, causes of possible equipment breakdowns. A group of workers is gathered to study the problems and failures

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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FMEA for equipment


PAGE EQUIPMENT
Equipment functions Failure modes Faiulre efects

OF

CARRIED OUT BY
Failure causes Actual controls

DATE
Recommended actions Responsible

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PAGE EQUIPMENT
Equipment functions Failure modes Faiulre efects

OF

CARRIED OUT BY
Failure causes Actual controls

DATE
Recommended actions Responsible

FMEA for equipment

Equipment functions.

The functions that the equipment carries out.

Provides compressed air during specific conditions.

Failure modes.

All the possible ways that the equipment can be forced to stop.

Breaks, blockage, leaks, etc.

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PAGE EQUIPMENT
Equipment functions Failure modes Faiulre efects

OF

CARRIED OUT BY
Failure causes Actual controls

DATE
Recommended actions Responsible

FMEA for equipment

Failure effects.

All possible consequences of each failure are analyzed in detail.

Severity (S).

1 being not very serious. 4 very serious or 10.

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PAGE EQUIPMENT
Equipment functions Failure modes Faiulre efects

OF

CARRIED OUT BY
Failure causes Actual controls

DATE
Recommended actions Responsible

FMEA for equipment

Failure causes.

The origin of the failure is analyzed. Identify the anomaly that can lead to the failure.

Probability (P).

1 not very frequent. 4 very frequent or 10.

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PAGE EQUIPMENT
Equipment functions Failure modes Faiulre efects

OF

CARRIED OUT BY
Failure causes Actual controls

DATE
Recommended actions Responsible

FMEA for equipment

Actual controls.

If, at the present time, some kind of control is carried out. Detection (D)

1 if the control does not always detect the cause 4 if it always detects or 10.

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FMEA for equipment

After the first part of the FMEA table has been completed, the Risk Priority Number (RPN) is calculated.

The product of the three quantified variables (S, P and D). Ranking failures by RPN.

Analyze the causes that do not represent any threat. Special attention must be paid to those effects that have been considered critical.
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Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

FMEA for equipment

The chosen plan of action and the employee responsible for carrying out this plan are registered in the same table utilized in the FMEA.

After a FMEA application arises, the necessity of developing a preventive maintenance plan is recommended.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Equipment performance

Substitution

FMEA for equipment

T = KMTBF MTTR Time MTBF

Preventive maintenance intervention periods (T).

Know the component damage/wear behavior curve.

Breakdowns and the time when the breakdowns occurred -> Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF).

T is based on the corrective percentage that the company would like to support (K).
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Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

Reliability

Reliability is defined as the probability that an equipment will work satisfactorily, during a certain period of time under some specific working conditions. Reliability is a probability.

Relative frequency of breakdowns.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Reliability

All production equipment should work satisfactorily.

Failure can be triggered by an abrupt change in the component characteristic or by progressive damage. Maintain quality standards during a reasonable period of time.

Work satisfactorily for a specific period of time.

RELIABILITY = QUALITY + TIME


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Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

Reliability

The component life or equipment life duration depends on working conditions.


Environmental (temperature or humidity). Operational (continuous starts and stops, electrical strain).

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Reliability

The system state depends on the primary group of elements that makes it work properly.

Each element has a random lifetime.

Estimate the lifetime of the components.

Reliability -> MBTF (Mean Time Between Failure)


MTBF Operating time Number of failures
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Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

MTTR

Failures total time Number of failures

Reliability and Maintainability

Maintainability -> probability that it must be repaired in a predetermined time following a specific repair procedure.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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MTTR

Failures total time Number of failures

Reliability and Maintainability

Maintainability depends on different factors.

Machine factors.

Accessibility or interchangeability among components. Maintenance staff knowledge, documentation availability,

Organizational factors.

Operative factors.

Ability of the manpower.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

Is quantified through the MTTR (Mean Time To Recovery). 64/80

Reliability and Statistical availability

Average between the middle time used in the equipment and the required production time
statistical availability
TBF1 TBF2

MTBF MTBF MTTR


TBF3

If the different times between breakdowns as t TR1 TR2 duration time TR3 are well as each repair graphically represented this process.
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Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

Reliability - the Bathtub curve

Is a graphic representation of the failure rate l(t).

Probability that an element fails depending on its life use stage or status.

ZONE I. Infant period. ZONE II. Useful period. ZONE III. Waste period.
l(t) ZONE I ZONE II ZONE III

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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time

Reliability The bathtub curve: Zone I

l(t) ZONE I

ZONE II

Equipment set up and debug process. Goes downhill because, as time moves forward, the probability of a component failure decreases. The problems in this area can be avoided by making intensive tests or by exchanging troublemaker elements at an early stage adjustment period.
ZONE III time

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Reliability The bathtub curve: Zone II

ZONE II ZONE III

NE

Zone II.

Failures randomly appear. Electronic systems.


time

The curve formed is virtually horizontal. The curve normally has a slightly positive slope.

In mechanical systems.

ZONE III

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU time

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Reliability The bathtub curve: Zone III


ZONE II ZONE III

NE

Zone III.
Failures come from components far time more quickly. Critical components replacement is strongly recommended.

ZONE III

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU time

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Defects

sporadic losses

P-M Analysis
chronic losses

zero losses

Time

Defects reasons.

Sporadic() losses. Chronic() losses.

Sporadic losses can be corrected using tools already studied.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Defects

sporadic losses

P-M Analysis
chronic losses

zero losses

Time

The P-M analysis is responsible for eliminating chronic losses.


Considered natural according to their root sources. P - > Phenomenon. M - > Mechanism.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Defects

sporadic losses

P-M Analysis
chronic losses

zero losses

Time

Reliability that has been studied has two aspects to consider.

Intrinsic reliability.

Due to the design and production of the component. Due to the component use and the maintenance process.

Operative reliability.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Defects

sporadic losses

P-M Analysis
chronic losses

zero losses

Time

P-M analysis should be applied after conventional improvement. Six sigma is also suitable to carry out this type of study.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Maintenance management

A maintenance department should properly manage and control their costs. Unlimited number of indicators that can be used for maintenance department performance.

Manpower performance, hours dedicated to urgent work, repair cost, availability,...

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Maintenance management

Maintenance management is a difficult task because it frequently does not have managements support.

As long as the maintenance department does not exceed its assigned budget, no one pays much attention to the maintenance department activities or expenses.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Maintenance costs

Using economic terms, maintenance management helps to control deviations in the firms budget and also to determine investment needs to reduce the costs.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Maintenance costs

There are two alternatives or opposing costs.

Non-maintenance costs.

Opportunity costs, quality costs, production manpower cost, etc. Breakdown prevention costs, anomalies detection cost, inspection resources costs, etc.

Maintenance costs.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Cost Total costs

Maintenance costs
1
0%

Maintenance costs

Non-maintenance costs

2
Availability
100 %

(1) -> Maintenance investment increases the equipment availability and at the same time (2) -> An increase of the availability, supposes large investments.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Summary

This chapter has provided an overview of maintenance activities, a critical aspect of Lean Manufacturing. Maintenance planning and monitoring activities are critical factors for Lean Enterprise efficiency.

Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU

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Summary

Unfortunately, maintenance is normally perceived as a necessary evil, and is not always seen as a critical engineering activity. This chapter has outlined some of the maintenance policies and procedures that can be used to obtain the goal for any production system: operate as efficient as possible at the lowest cost.
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Dr. Tai-Yue Wang IIM Dept. NCKU