Organizational Behavior


Group Dynamics and Teamwork
Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

Sociological Criteria of a group
• Two or more freely interacting people (Interdependent -interact and influence each other);
• Mutually accountable for achieving common goals; • Common Identity; • Collective Norms.

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran




What Makes People Join Groups?



Goal Achievement

Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

Organizational Behavior.g.Groups versus Teams • All teams are groups • Teams have task interdependence whereas some groups do not (e. University of Tehran .. 2006. • Skills in teams are complementary Gholipour A. group of employees enjoying lunch together) • Teams have a positive synergy .

Reduce the individual’s anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerlessness. 2. Satisfy the individual’s need for affiliation. University of Tehran . 5. 4. 4. Develop. 6. Gholipour A. 3. 2006. Socialize and train newcomers. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for personal and interpersonal problems.Functions of Formal Groups Organizational Functions 1. 3. Organizational Behavior. Generate new or creative ideas and solutions. interdependent tasks that are beyond the capabilities of individuals. and confirm the individual’s self-esteem and sense of identity. Accomplish complex. enhance. 5. Give individuals an opportunity to test and share their perceptions of social reality. Implement complex decisions. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for complex problems requiring varied information and assessments. Individual Functions 1. 2. Coordinate interdepartmental efforts.

Organizational Behavior.Theories of Group Formation • • • • • • • Propinquity Needs. University of Tehran . 2006. Functions and Goals Interaction Balance Theory Exchange Theory Five-Stage Theory Punctuated Equilibrium Model Gholipour A.

University of Tehran . 2006.Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development Performing Norming Storming Return to Independence Adjourning Forming Dependence/ interdependence Independence Gholipour A. Organizational Behavior.

2006.Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development (continued) Forming Storming Norming Performing Individual Issues “How do I fit in?” “What’s my role here?” “What do the “How can I best others expect perform my me to do?” role?” Group Issues “Why are we here?” “Why are we fighting over who’s in charge and who does what?” “Can we agree on roles and “Can we do the work as a job properly?” team?” Gholipour A. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran .

NOT QUITE A SOCIAL GROUP • Category – People with common status (girls. passengers waiting to board an airplane) Gholipour A. Organizational Behavior. doctors. nurses) • Aggregate – People in the same place (people at the mall) • Crowd – Temporary cluster of people (spectators at a game. 2006. University of Tehran .

2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran .PRIMARY GROUPS • Traits – Small – Personal orientation – Enduring (long lasting) – Frequent interaction – Face-to-face – Intimate – sense of belonging – emotional orientation: bond based on emotions – loyalty • Primary relationships – First group experienced in life – Irreplaceable – Security • Assistance of all kinds – Emotional to financial Examples: the family. Gholipour A.

University of Tehran . Organizational Behavior. 2006.Gholipour A.

2006. Organizational Behavior. political organizations Gholipour A.SECONDARY GROUPS • Traits – – – – Large membership: larger than primary groups Goal or activity orientation impersonal and formal Infrequent interaction – Secondary relationships – Weak emotional ties between persons – Short term • Importance – Networking – Career goals Examples: co-workers. University of Tehran .

University of Tehran . Organizational Behavior. 2006.In-Groups and Out-Groups • In-group – “group with which people identify and have a sense of belonging” – pronoun “WE” • Out-group – “group that people do not identify with – pronoun “THEY” – Loyalty to INGROUP – Opposition to OUTGROUPS Gholipour A.

real or imaginary . • a standard to evaluate ourselves normative function comparative function Gholipour A.Reference Groups • In-groups can be secondary or primary groups. Organizational Behavior. but in either case. 2006. University of Tehran . they are always reference groups.

Group Dynamics • • • • • • • 1. University of Tehran . Leadership Roles Norms Status Size Composition Cohesiveness Socio-emotional Instrumental Gholipour A. Organizational Behavior. 2. 2006.

Different Role Requirements • • • • • • Role Identity Role Perception Role Expectations Role Conflict Role Overload Role Ambiguity Gholipour A. 2006. University of Tehran . Organizational Behavior.

2006. Organizational Behavior.Task Roles Roles Initiator Information seeker/giver Opinion seeker/giver Elaborator Coordinator Orienter Evaluator Energizer Procedural Technician Recorder Description Suggests new goals or ideas Clarifies key issues Clarifies pertinent issues Promote greater understanding Pulls together key ideas and suggestions Keeps group headed toward its stated goal(s) Tests group’s accomplishments Prods group to move along or to accomplish more Performs routine duties Performs a “group memory” function Gholipour A. University of Tehran .

University of Tehran . Organizational Behavior. 2006.Maintenance Roles Roles Encourager Harmonizer Compromiser Description Fosters group solidarity Mediates conflict through reconciliation or humor Helps resolve conflict by meeting others”half way” Gate Keeper Standard setter Commentator Follower Encourages all group members to participate Evaluates the quality of group processes Records comments on group processes/dynamics Serves as a passive audience Gholipour A.

Organizational Behavior.Individual versus Group Decision Making Individuals • Speed Groups • Knowledge & Diversity • Clear Accountability • Consistent Values • High Quality Decisions • Increased Acceptance Gholipour A. 2006. University of Tehran .

Group Dysfunctions • Conformity (Sharif. University of Tehran . Hofling) • Groupthink • Social loafing • Risky shift Gholipour A. 2006. Milgram. Organizational Behavior. Asch.

University of Tehran .GROUP CONFORMITY STUDIES PRESSURES TO CONFORM TO GROUP DESIRES • Asch’s research – Willingness to COMPROMISE our own judgments – Line experiment • Milgram’s research – Role authority plays – Following orders • Janis’ research – Negative side of ‘groupthink’ • Lack of objectivity Gholipour A. Organizational Behavior. 2006.

University of Tehran .ASCH’S LINE EXPERIMENT Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior.

Organizational Behavior. 2006. University of Tehran .Symptoms of Groupthink • • • • • • • • Invulnerability Inherent morality Rationalization Stereotyped views of opposition Self-censorship Illusion of unanimity Peer pressure Mindguards Gholipour A.

Organizational Behavior. 2006.How to Prevent Groupthink Every group member a critical evaluator Avoid rubber-stamp decisions Different groups explore same problems Rely on subgroup debates and outside experts Assign role of devil’s advocate Rethink a consensus Gholipour A. University of Tehran .

Organizational Behavior. 2006.Conditions for Social Loafing • Low task interdependence • Individual output not visible • Routine. uninteresting tasks • Low task significance • Low collectivist values Gholipour A. University of Tehran .

2006. Organizational Behavior.Types of Teams General Typology of Teams • Advice • Production • Project • Action Common Forms of Teams • Problem solving • Self-managed • Cross-functional • Virtual Gholipour A. University of Tehran .

2006.Virtual Teams • Cross-functional teams that operate across space. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran . time and organizational boundaries using information technology • Increasingly possible because of: – Technology – Knowledge-based work • Increasingly necessary because of: – Globalization – Knowledge management – Need for team work Gholipour A.

69 Gholipour A. October 1996. p. University of Tehran .” Training. Schedule work assignments Work with outside customers Conduct training Set production goals/quotas Work with suppliers/vendors Purchase equipment/services Develop budgets Do performance appraisals Hire co-workers Fire co-workers 67% 67 59 56 44 43 39 36 33 14 Source: Adapted from “1996 industry Report: What Self-Managing Teams Manage.Survey Evidence: What SelfManaging Teams Manage Percentage of Companies Saying Their Self-Managing Teams Perform These Traditional Management Functions by Themselves. 2006. Organizational Behavior.

Team Effectiveness Model Organizational and Team Environment • Reward systems • Communication systems Team Design •Task characteristics •Team size •Team composition • Achieve organizational goals • Satisfy member needs • Maintain team survival Team Effectiveness • Physical space • Organizational environment • Organizational structure • Organizational leadership Team Processes •Team development •Team norms •Team roles •Team cohesiveness Gholipour A. Organizational Behavior. 2006. University of Tehran .

Heterogeneous Teams Homogeneous Teams Heterogeneous teams • Higher satisfaction • Less conflict • More conflict • Slower team development -takes longer to agree on norms and goals • Faster team development • More efficient coordination • Performs better on simple tasks • Better knowledge and resources for complex tasks • Tend to be more creative • Higher potential for support outside the team Gholipour A. Organizational Behavior. 2006. University of Tehran .Homogeneous vs.

Organizational Behavior.Stages of Team Development Performing Norming Storming Forming Existing teams might regress back to an earlier stage of development Adjourning Gholipour A. University of Tehran . 2006.

University of Tehran . 2.Team Norms • • Norm: “An attitude.that guides their behavior. opinion.shared by two or more people -. 4. Organizational Behavior. feeling. or action -.” Informal rules and expectations team establishes to regulate member behaviors 1. Explicit statements Critical events in team’s history Primacy Beliefs/values members bring to the team and team experiences Norms develop through: Why Norms Are Enforced • • • • Help the group or organization survive Clarify or simplify behavioral expectations Help individuals avoid embarrassing situations Clarify the group’s or organization’s central values and/or unique identity Gholipour A. 2006. 3.

2006. University of Tehran . Organizational Behavior.Causes of Team Cohesiveness Member Similarity External Challenges Member Interaction Team Success Team Cohesiveness Team Size Somewhat Difficult Entry Gholipour A.

2006. Gholipour A.Team Cohesiveness Outcomes Members of cohesive teams: • Want to remain members • Willing to share information • Strong interpersonal bonds • Want to support each other • Resolve conflict effectively • More satisfied and experience less stress . Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran .

Organizational Behavior.Cohesiveness-Productivity Relationship Cohesiveness High Alignment of group and organizational goals Low High Strong Increase In Productivity Moderate Increase In Productivity Low Decrease in Productivity No Significant Effect On Productivity Gholipour A. University of Tehran . 2006.

Shaping Team Players Rewards Training Selection Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran .

tell • • • • • the truth). University of Tehran .Trust: “Reciprocal faith in others’ intentions and behavior. give feedback. Organizational Behavior. keep your promises). Respect (delegate. Competence (demonstrate good business sense and professionalism). be an active listener). Predictability (be consistent. Fairness (give credit where due.” How to Build Trust • Communication (keep everyone informed. objectively evaluate performance). 2006. Effective Teamwork Through Trust Effective Teamwork Through Cooperation • Cooperation • Competition Gholipour A. Support (be available and approachable).

2. Emphasize member. Organizational Behavior. 2006. Give every team member a vital “piece of the action”.” How to Enhance Cohesiveness • Socio-Emotional Cohesiveness 1. 3. Point out environmental threats to rally the team. 2. • Instrumental Cohesiveness Keep the team relatively small. University of Tehran . 5. Encourage interaction and cooperation. Channel each team member.s common characteristics and interests. Increase the status and prestige of belonging. 5.s special talents to the common goals. 1. 3.s goals. 4. Gholipour A. Frequently remind team members they need each other to get the job done. Regularly update and clarify the team.Effective Teamwork Through Cohesiveness Cohesiveness: “A sense of we-ness helps team stick together. Recognize and equitably reinforce every member.s contributions. 4.

High-performance Teams Shared Responsibility Participative Leadership Aligned on Purpose High Communication Future Focused Rapid Response Attributes of high-performance Teams Creative Talents Focused on Task Gholipour A. University of Tehran . Organizational Behavior. 2006.

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