Total Quality Management

Dr Vikas Madhukar Professor Amity Business School,

Fundamental Concern of Management Worldwide
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Quality Cost, and Productivity

Meaning of Quality
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Webster’s Dictionary
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degree of excellence of a thing totality of features and characteristics that satisfy needs

American Society for Quality Consumer’s and Producer’s Perspective

What is Quality?
•Quality is “fitness for use” (Joseph M Juran)

•Quality is “conformance to requirements” (Philip B. Crosby) •Quality of a product or services is its ability to satisfy the needs and expectations of the customer •‘WOW’ your customers •Producing with ‘Zero Defect’ •The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied need of customers. (ISO 8402: Quality Vocabulary)

Conformance to specifications

Defining Quality – 5 Ways

Does product/service meet targets and tolerances defined by designers? Evaluates performance for intended use Evaluation of usefulness vs. price paid Quality of support after sale e.g. Ambiance, prestige, friendly staff

Fitness for use

Value for price paid

Support services


Evolution of Quality Management
Inspection Quality Control Quality Assurance TQM
Salvage, sorting, grading, blending, corrective actions, identify sources of non-conformance Develop quality manual, process performance data, self-inspection, product testing, basic quality planning, use of basic statistics, paperwork control. Quality systems development, advanced quality planning, comprehensive quality manuals, use of quality costs, involvement of non-production operations, failure mode and effects analysis, SPC. Policy deployment, involve supplier & customers, involve all operations, process management, performance measurement, teamwork, employee involvement.

Evolution of TQM – New Focus

Dimensions of Quality: Manufactured Fitness for use Products how well product or

service does what it is supposed to

Quality of design
designing quality characteristics into a product or service A Mercedes and a Ford are equally “fit for use,” but with different design dimensions

Dimensions of Quality: Manufactured Performance Products

basic operating characteristics of a product; how well a car is handled or its gas mileage “extra” items added to basic features, such as a stereo CD or a leather interior in a car probability that a product will operate properly within an expected time frame; that is, a TV will work without repair for about seven years



Dimensions of Quality: Manufactured Products (cont.)

degree to which a product meets pre– established standards


how long product lasts before replacement ease of getting repairs, speed of repairs, courtesy and competence of repair person


Dimensions of Quality: Manufactured Products (cont.)  Aesthetics

how a product looks, feels, sounds, smells, or tastes


assurance that customer will not suffer injury or harm from a product; an especially important consideration for automobiles subjective perceptions based on brand name, advertising, and the like


Time and Timeliness

Dimensions of Quality: Service
How long must a customer wait for service, and is it completed on time? Is an overnight package delivered overnight? Is everything customer asked for provided? Is a mail order from a catalogue company complete when delivered?


Dimensions of Quality: Service (cont.) Courtesy:
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How are customers treated by employees? Are catalogue phone operators nice and are their voices pleasant? Is the same level of service provided to each customer each time? Is your newspaper delivered on time every morning?

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Dimensions of Quality: Service (cont.)

Accessibility and convenience
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How easy is it to obtain service? Does a service representative answer you calls quickly? Is the service performed right every time? Is your bank or credit card statement correct every month? How well does the company react to unusual situations? How well is a telephone operator able to respond to a customer’s questions?

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Meaning of Quality: Producer’s Perspective

Quality of Conformance

Making sure a product or service is produced according to design

if new tires do not conform to specifications, they wobble if a hotel room is not clean when a guest checks in, the hotel is not functioning according to specifications of its design

Meaning of Quality: A Final Perspective

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Consumer’s and producer’s perspectives depend on each other Consumer’s perspective Producer’s perspective Consumer’s view must dominate

What is


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Total - Made up of the whole Quality - degree of excellence a product or service provides Management - Act, art or manner of planning, controlling, directing,….

Therefore, TQM is the art of managing the whole to achieve excellence.

How Work Gets Done in an Organization?

Inputs Processes

Delivered by suppliers Steps to transform inputs

Outputs Goods and Services valued by customers Quality of outputs depends on the correct execution of FIRST two steps. A mistake anywhere in the process affects everyone in one way to another.

Concept of Internal Customers
Improveme nts Improveme nts

External Supplier s

Interna l Suppli ers

Interna l Suppli ers

Extern al Custo mer



What does TQM mean?
Total Quality Management means that the organization's culture is defined by and supports the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through an integrated system of tools, techniques, and training. This involves the continuous improvement of organizational processes, resulting in high quality products and services.

Total Quality Management
“TQM is a management philosophy embracing all activities through which the needs and expectations of the customer and the community and the objectives of the organisation are satisfied in the most efficient and effective way by maximising the potential of the employees in a continuous drive for improvement”

Total Quality Management
TQM is integrated organisational approach in delighting customers (both internal and external) by meeting their expectations on a continuous basis through everyone involved in the organisation, working on continuous improvement in all products, services, and processes along with proper problem solving methodology.

Another way to put it

At it’s simplest, TQM is all managers leading and facilitating all contributors in everyone’s two main objectives: (1) total client satisfaction through quality products and services; and (2) continuous improvements to processes, systems, people, suppliers, partners, products, and services.

Total Quality Management and Continuous  TQM is the management process Improvement

used to make continuous improvements to all functions. TQM represents an ongoing, continuous commitment to improvement. The foundation of total quality is a management philosophy that supports meeting customer requirements through continuous

Continuous Improvement versus Traditional Approach Improvement Continuous Traditional Approach
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Market-share focus Individuals Focus on ‘who” and “why” Short-term focus Status quo focus Product focus Fire fighting

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Customer focus Cross-functional teams Focus on “what” and “how” Long-term focus Continuous improvement Process improvement focus Problem solving

Quality Throughout

“A Customer’s impression of quality begins with the initial contact with the company and continues through the life of the product.”

Customers look to the total package - sales, service during the sale, packaging, deliver, and service after the sale. Quality extends to how the receptionist answers the phone, how managers treat subordinates, how courteous sales and repair people are, and how the product is serviced after the sale.

“All departments of the company must strive to improve the quality of their

The TQM System

Continuous Improvement

Principles Customer

Process Total Improvement Involvement

Top Management Commitments Customer Focus Elements Employees Involvement and Empowerment Process Focus and improvement Continuous improvement Measurement of performance Education and Training Supportive structure Communications Reward and recognition

Manufacturing Quality vs. Service Quality

Manufacturing quality focuses on tangible product features

Conformance, performance, reliability, features

Service organizations produce intangible products that must be experienced

Quality often defined by perceptional factors like courtesy, friendliness, promptness, waiting time, consistency

TQM Philosophy – What’s Different?

Focus on Customer
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Identify and meet customer needs Stay tuned to changing needs, e.g. fashion styles Continuous learning and problem solving, e.g. Kaizen, 6 sigma Inspection vs. prevention & problem solving Empower all employees; external and internal

Continuous Improvement

Quality at the Source

Employee Empowerment

TQM Philosophy– What’s Different? (continued)

Understanding Quality Tools

Ongoing training on analysis, assessment, and correction, & implementation tools Teams formed around processes – 8 to 10 people Meet weekly to analyze and solve problems Studying practices at “best in class” companies Certifying suppliers vs. receiving inspection

Team Approach
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Managing Supplier Quality

What is TQM?
Constant drive for continuous improvement and learning.

Management by Fact

Concern for employee involvement and development

Result Focus

Passion to deliver customer value / excellence

Organisation response ability
Partnership perspective (internal / external)

Actions not just words (implementation)

Process Management

Approach Scope Scale Philosophy Standard Control Theme Management Led Company Wide Everyone is responsible for Quality Prevention not Detection Right First Time Cost of Quality On going Improvement

Learning Process Improvement Quality Improvement Customer Satisfaction Shareholder Satisfaction Employee Satisfaction

Cost of Quality

Cost of Achieving Good Quality

Prevention costs

costs incurred during product design costs of measuring, testing, and analyzing

Appraisal costs

Cost of Poor Quality

Internal failure costs

include scrap, rework, process failure, downtime, and price reductions include complaints, returns, warranty claims, liability, and lost sales

External failure costs

Prevention Costs

Quality planning costs

costs of developing and implementing quality management program costs of designing products with quality characteristics

Training costs

Product-design costs

costs of developing and putting on quality training programs for employees and management costs of acquiring and maintaining data related to quality, and development of reports on quality performance

Information costs

Process costs

costs expended to make sure productive process conforms to quality specifications

Appraisal Costs

Inspection and testing

costs of testing and inspecting materials, parts, and product at various stages and at the end of a process costs of maintaining equipment used in testing quality characteristics of products costs of time spent by operators to gather data for testing product quality, to make equipment adjustments to maintain quality, and to stop work to assess quality

Test equipment costs

Operator costs

Internal Failure Costs

Scrap costs

costs of poor-quality products that must be discarded, including labor, material, and indirect costs costs of fixing defective products to conform to quality specifications costs of determining why production process is producing poor-quality products

Process downtime costs

Rework costs

costs of shutting down productive process to fix problem

Price-downgrading costs

Process failure costs

costs of discounting poor-quality products— that is, selling products as “seconds”

External Failure Costs

Customer complaint costs

costs of investigating and satisfactorily responding to a customer complaint resulting from a poor-quality product costs of handling and replacing poor-quality products returned by customer costs of complying with product warranties

Product liability costs

Product return costs

litigation costs resulting from product liability and customer injury costs incurred because customers are dissatisfied with poor quality products and do not make additional purchases

Lost sales costs

Warranty claims costs

Quality Gurus

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W Edwards Deming Joseph Juran Philip Crosby Shigeo Shingo Kaoru Ishikawa Yoshio Kondo Taiichi Ohno

W Edwards Deming (1900

1993) the key to quality: reducing variation Electrical Engineering,
University of Wyoming, 1921 PhD, Yale University Western Electric Hawthorne, Chicago US census statistician, 1939/40 Teaching Shewhart methods, 1942 invited to Japan after the war .... Quality, Productivity and Competitive Position, 1982 Out of the Crisis, 1986/88 British Deming Association, Salisbury

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W Edwards Deming

regarded by the Japanese as the chief architect of their industrial success “all processes are vulnerable to loss of quality through variation: if levels of variation are managed, they can be decreased and quality raised” quality is about people, not products

W Edwards Deming

Core element is the “management circle”
planning  do/implementation  check/study  action  PDCA (or PDSA) cycle

Continuous improvement (Kaizen)

teamwork and competence in problem solving

The Deming Cycle or PDCA Cycle PLAN


Plan a change to the process. Predict the effect this change will have and plan how the effects will be measured


Adopt the change as a permanent modification to the process, or abandon it.

Implement the change on a small scale and measure the effects

Study the results to learn what effect the change had, if any.

W Edwards Deming

Out of the Crisis (1984)
having a satisfied customer is not enough  profit in business comes from

repeat customers  customers that boast about your product and service  customers that bring friends with them

necessary to anticipate customer needs

1) Create constancy of purpose towards improvement
of product and services.

W. Edwards Deming’s 14 Points

2) Adopt the new philosophy. We can no longer live
with commonly accepted levels of delays, mistakes, defective workmanship.

3) Cease dependence on mass inspection. Require,
instead, statistical evidence that quality is built in.

4) End the practice of awarding business on the basis of
price tag.

W. Edwards Deming’s 14 Points 5) Find problems. It is management’s job to work
continually on the system.

6) Institute modern methods of training on the job. 7) Institute modern methods of supervision of
production workers. The responsibility of foremen must be changed from numbers to quality.

8) Drive out fear that everyone may work effectively for
the company.

W. Edwards Deming’s 14 Points 9) Break down barriers between departments. 10) Eliminate numerical goals, posters and slogans for
the workforce asking for new levels of productivity without providing methods.

11) Eliminate work standards that prescribe numerical

12) Remove barriers that stand between the hourly
worker and his right to pride of workmanship.

W. Edwards Deming’s 14 Points 13) Institute a vigorous programme of education and

14) Create a structure in top management that will push
everyday on the above 13 points.

Deming’s Chain Reaction
Improve Quality Cost decreases because Provide jobs and of less rework, fewer more jobs Stay in business
mistakes, fewer delays, snags, better use of machine time and materials

Productivity improves Capture the market with better quality and lower price

Joseph Juran (b.1904)
company wide quality cannot be delegated

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Western Electric manufacturing, 1920s AT&T manufacturing Quality Control Handbook, 1951 Management of Quality courses Juran on Planning for Quality, 1988

Joseph Juran

structure CWQM concept: Company-Wide Quality Management essential for senior managers to
involve themselves  define the goals  assign responsibilities  measure progress

Joseph Juran
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empowerment of the workforce quality linked to human relations and teamwork key elements
identifying customers and their needs  creating measurements of quality  planning processes to meet quality goals  continuous improvements

Joseph JURAN  Quality just not just happen but has to be planned  Trilogy of Quality:
Quality Planning  Quality Control  Quality Improvement

Joseph JURAN
Quality PLANNING consists of:  Identifying customers and their needs  Establishing optimum quality goals  Creating measurements of quality  Plan to meet quality goals under operating conditions  Produce continuing results

Joseph JURAN

Emphasises the importance of internal as well as external customers Concept of ‘fitness for use’ to be applied to the interim product for all internal customers Actions should consist of
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90% substance, 10% exhortation

(not the reverse)

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conformance to requirements Martin missiles QM at ITT, then corporate VP 1979: Quality is Free Philip Crosby Associates Inc. 1984: Quality without Tears “Do It Right First Time” “Zero Defects”

Philip Crosby (19262001)

Philip CROSBY  Quality is defined as conformance to requirements  Traditional quality control represent failure  Manufacturing companies spend 20% revenues doing things wrong so…
‘Do it Right First Time’  ‘Zero Defects’

Philip CROSBY  Without reservation senior management is entirely responsible for quality  Goal should be to give all staff training and tools of quality improvement to apply the concepts of Prevention management  Quality improvement has to be ongoing

Characteristics of continuing success… 3. People do things right first time 4. Change is anticipated and used to advantage 5. Growth s consistent and profitable 6. New products and services appear when needed 7. Everyone is happy to work there

Philip CROSBY Four absolutes of Quality Management
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Quality is conformance to requirements Create quality by prevention, not appraisal Performance standard should be ‘Zero Defects’ Measurement of quality is the price of nonconformance Hence ‘QUALITY IS FREE’

Four Absolutes of Quality Management (Crosby, 1979)
Cost of Quality classified as: x Prevention costs x Appraisal costs x Failure costs

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Cost of Quality: prevention costs design reviews
product qualification drawing checking engineering quality orientation supplier evaluations supplier quality seminars specification review process capability studies tool control operation training quality orientation acceptance planning zero defects programme Quality Audits preventative maintenance

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Cost of Quality: appraisal costs
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prototype inspection and test production specification conformance analysis supplier surveillance receiving inspection and test product acceptance process control acceptance packaging inspection status measurement and reporting

Cost of Quality: failure costs 
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consumer affairs redesign engineering change order purchasing change order corrective action costs rework scrap warranty service after service product liability

Poka-Yoke: mistake-proofing

Shigeo Shingo (b.19091990)

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1930: ME degree from Yamanashi Tech Taipei Railway Factory, Taiwan consultant with Japan Management Assn
1955: training at Toyota Motor Company 1959: Institute of Management Improvement 1961-64: concept of Poka-Yoke

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Shigeo Shingo

Poka-Yoke: mistake-proofing
identify errors before they become defects  stop the process whenever a defect occurs, define the source and prevent recurrence

1967: source inspection + improved PY

prevented the worker from making errors

Pareto and cause-and-effect  1939: engg. graduate of Tokyo Univ diagrams
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Kaoru Ishikawa (19151989)

1947: Assistant Professor 1955-60: Company-wide QC movement 1960: Professor

Kaoru Ishikawa
“quality does not only mean the quality of the product, but also of after sales service, quality of management, the company itself and human life”

Kaoru Ishikawa (points 1-7
of 15)
product quality is improved and becomes uniform. Defects are reduced  reliability of goods is improved  cost is reduced  quantity of production is increased, rational production schedules are possible  wasteful work and rework are reduced  technique is established and

Kaoru Ishikawa (points 815 of 15)
rational contracts between vendor/vendee  sales market is enlarged  better relationships between departments  false data and reports are reduced  freer, more democratic discussions  smoother operation of meetings  more rational repairs and installation
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Yoshio Kondo (b.1924)

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1945: graduated from Kyoto University 1961: doctorate in engineering & Prof 1987 Emeritus Professor 1989: Human Motivation

motivation of employees is important

- a key factor for management

1993: Companywide Quality Control

leadership is central to implementation of TQM

Yoshio Kondo

Human work should include:


the joy of thinking the joy of working with sweat on the forehead the joy of sharing pleasure and pain with colleagues

physical activity


Yoshio Kondo

Four points of action to support motivation
when giving work instruction, clarify the true aims of the work  see that people have a strong sense of responsibility towards their work  give time for the creation of ideas  nurture ideas and bring them to fruition

Yoshio Kondo

Leaders must have
a dream (vision and shared goals)  strength of will and tenacity of purpose  ability to win the support of followers  ability to do more than their followers, without interfering when they can do it alone  successes  ability to give the right advice

Taiichi Ohno (1912-1990)
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regarded as the father of Just-In-Time (JIT) at Toyota. graduated with mech eng degree from Nogoya worked for the Toyoda Weaving Company 1939: transferred to Toyota Motor Company as a machine shop manager 1988: Workplace Management ~ justin-time and Toyota Production System (later known as Lean Manufacturing).

Ohno: seven forms of waste
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overproduction waiting transportation motion inventory defects overprocessing

Review of Main Ideas of the Quality Guru

W. E. Deming - introduced concepts of variation to the Japanese and also a systematic approach to problem solving, which later became know as the Deming, PDCA or PDSA cycle. Also given 14 points and has summarized his 70 years experience in his System of Profound Knowledge. Juran – Quality does not happen by accident, it must be planned, and quality planning is part of the trilogy of planning, control and improvement. There is no

Review of Main Ideas of the Quality Guru

Philip Crosby – ‘DO it right first time’ and ‘Zero defects’. He based his quality improvement approach on four absolutes of quality management, the cost of quality and quality improvement process. Kaoru Ishikawa’s – 1) 7 tools of Quality Control, 2) Company Wide Quality Control (CWQC), 3) Quality Circle Movement. Shiegeo Shingo – Poka-Yoke system to ensure ‘zero-defects’ in production by preventive measures.

Review of Main Ideas of the Quality Guru

Yoshio Kondo – identifies that quality is more compatible with human nature than cost and productivity. He developed a four point approach to motivation which makes it possible for work to be reborn as a creative activity. Taiichi Ohno – JIT (Just-in-time), Lean Manufacturing, Seven form of WASTE (MUDA)

Seven Problem Solving Tools
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Pareto Analysis Flowcharts Checklists Histograms Scatter Diagrams Control Charts Cause-and-Effect Diagrams

A Pareto Chart is a  vertical bar chart in which the bars are   arranged in the descending order of their height starting from the left and prioritize the problems or issues.

to prioritize problems to analyze a process to identify root causes to verify that whatever improvement process you implement continues to work

Pareto Analysis
NUMBER OF DEFECTS 80 16 12 7 4 3 3 125


PERCENTAGE 64 % 13 10 6 3 2 2 100 %

Poor design Wrong part dimensions Defective parts Incorrect machine calibration Operator errors Defective material Surface abrasions

Percent from each cause 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0
W ro ng


(13) (10) (6) (3)

Causes of poor quality (2) (2)

Pareto Chart

Po or De si gn di m en De si fe on ct s iv e M pa ac rts hi ne ca O pe l ibr at ra io to ns r er De ro rs fe ct iv e Su m at rfa er ce ia ls ab ra si on s

Flow Charts
Flow charts are nothing but graphical representation of steps involved in a process. Flow charts give in detail the sequence involved in the material, machine and operation that are involved in the completion of the process. Thus, they are the excellent means of documenting the steps that are carried out in a process.

Start/ Finish








Start/ Finish

Check Sheet
Check sheets are nothing but forms that can be used to systematically collect data. Check sheet give the user a place to start and provides the steps to be followed in Collecting the data

COMPONENTS REPLACED BY LAB TIME PERIOD:  22 Feb  to  27 Feb 2002 REPAIR TECHNICIAN:    Bob TV SET MODEL 1013 Integrated Circuits Capacitors Resistors Transformers Commands CRT
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to gather data to test a theory to evaluate alternate solutions to verify that whatever improvement process you implement continues to work

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team agrees on what to observe decide who collects data decide time period for collecting data design Check Sheet collect data compile data in the Check Sheet review Check Sheet

Histograms help in understanding the variation in the process. It also helps in estimating the process capability.

20 15 10 5 0 1 2 6 13 10 16 19 17 12 16 2017 13 5 6 2 1

Scatter Diagram
It is a graph of points plotted; this graph is helpful in comparing two variables. The distribution of the points helps in identifying the cause and effect relationship Between two variables.



Control Chart
A control chart is nothing but a run chart with limits. This is helpful in finding the amount and nature of variation in a process.


Number of defects

21 18 15 12 9 6 3 2

UCL = 23.35 c = 12.67

LCL = 1.99 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Sample number

Cause and Effect Diagram

Developed by Dr Kaoru Ishikawa in 1943. It is also known by the name of 1) Ishikawa diagram, 2)Fishbone diagram. This diagram is helpful in representing the relationship between an effect and the potential or possible causes that influences it. This is very much helpful when one want to find out the solution to a particular problem that could have a number of causes for it and when we are interested in finding out the root cause for it.

Cause-and-Effect Diagram
Faulty testing equipment Incorrect specifications Improper methods

Poor supervision Lack of concentration Inadequate training

Out of adjustment Tooling problems Old / worn

Inaccurate temperature control

Quality Problem
Defective from vendor Not to specifications Poor process design Ineffective quality management Deficiencies in product design

Dust and Dirt

Materialhandling problems




Quality Circles
8-10 members Same area Supervisor/moderator

Implementation Monitoring

Group processes Data collection Problem analysis

Problem results

Problem Identification
List alternatives Consensus Brainstorming

Problem Analysis
Cause and effect Data collection and analysis

Six Sigma

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A process for developing and delivering near perfect products and services Measure of how much a process deviates from perfection 3.4 defects per million opportunities Champion

an executive responsible for project success

Black Belts and Green Belts

Black Belt

project leader

Master Black Belt

a teacher and mentor for Black Belts project team members

Green Belts

Six Sigma: DMAIC

67,000 DPMO cost = 25% of sales

3.4 DPMO

Pokayoke (Error Proofing)

To design an operation in such a way that specific errors are prevented from causing major problems to the customer. It is used when defects occur and require 100 per cent inspection, immediate feedback and action at the 1) source of raw material 2) start of the production process 3) production point where an error may occur.


A Japanese term meaning ‘change for the better’ the concept implies a CONTINUOS IMPROVEMENT in all company functions at all levels. It is more cultural attitude and a life style rather than techniques.

5 S Framework for Good Housekeeping
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Seiri - Reorganisation, get rid of the unnecessary and keep the necessary. Seiton - Arrangements, putting things in order. Seiso - Cleanliness, clean work condition of work and to get rid of trash and dirt. Seiketsu – Personal cleanliness, ‘there is healthy mind in healthy body’ Shitsuke - Discipline, follow procedure in the work place and workshop with utmost sense of discipline.

Business Process Reengineering (BPR)

BPR is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, and speed.

Steps in BPR
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Process identification and mapping Choosing or selection of process to re-engineer Focus on critical processes Feasible processes Understanding the process Re-design the process.

Creating TQM Culture
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From Traditional Culture Hierarchical style Top down information flow Inward quality focus Functional focus Short-term planning Episodic improvements Top down initiatives Manage and delegate Direct Counsel Functional and narrow scope of jobs Enforcement Fire – fighting with few individuals/group

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To TQM Culture Participative style Top down, lateral and upward information flow Customer defined quality focus Process focus A vision for the future Comprehensive/Continuous improvements All staff involved and engaged Lead and Coach Empower Ownership and participation Integrated functions Promoting mutual trust Team initiatives group focussing on continuous improvement

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Management accountability and a deep sense of responsibility & commitment towards employees is the starting point. Total people involvement and empowerment Communication Training to employees Management thoughts and action towards delighting its customers Removing organisational boundaries and internal competition Using fact based decision making Use of Kaizen

Steps for Creating TQM Culture

Benchmarking and Continuous Improvement


The practice of establishing internal standards of performance by looking to how world-class companies run their businesses The company makes small incremental improvements toward excellence on a continual basis

Continuous Improvement

ISO Standards

ISO 9000 Standards:

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Certification developed by International Organization for Standardization Set of internationally recognized quality standards Companies are periodically audited & certified ISO 9000:2000 QMS – Fundamentals and Standards ISO 9001:2000 QMS – Requirements ISO 9004:2000 QMS - Guidelines for Performance

ISO 14000:
Focuses on a company’s environmental

Quality is a Journey, not a Destination

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