Steam cycle and steam power plant

Elements in steam cycle
• • • • • • • • • Saturation temperature Subcooled liquid Compressed liquid Saturated liquid Vapor Saturated vapor Superheated vapor Degree superheat Degree subcooled • • • • Wet vapor Quality Moisture Latent heat of vaporization • Critical point • Sensible heat • Latent heat

steam cycle .

897 kJ/kg•K p = 15. t = 234⁰C t = 250⁰C.0 MPa.Specify whether the steam is wet. p = 2. h = 2805 kJ/kg P = 4. v = 54. dry or superheated for the following conditions: • • • • • • • • t = 200⁰C.44 MPa t = 220⁰C.0 MPa. p = 1. s = 6.672 kJ/kg•K p = 3.2x10⁻3 m3/kg P = 11.0 MPa.318 MPa p = 1. s = 5.0 MPa.0 MPa. t = 310⁰C .

Processes of vapors • • • • • Constant pressure Constant volume Constant temperature Constant entropy Constant enthalpy .

Rankine cycle .

Ideal Rankine cycle processes (SPSP) • Adiabatic pumping (1 to 2) • Constant pressure heat addition of heat in the steam generator (2 to 3) • Isentropic expansion in the engine (3 to 4) • Constant pressure heat rejection in the condenser (4 to 1) .

Ideal versus actual rankine cycle .

Improving rankine cycle efficiecy • Lowering the condenser pressure in rankine cycle • Increasing the boiler pressure in rankine cycle • Superheating the steam to a higher temperature in rankine cycle • Reheat cycle • Regenerative cycle • Reheat – regenerative cycle .

Rankine cycle statements • Rankine cycle is the ideal cycle for vapor power plant • In a rankine cycle. . and the pump and turbine are assumed to be isentropic. • Steam is condensed at constant pressure in the condenser. • The boiler and condenser do not involve any work. The temperature and pressure may drop during the process. water enters the pump as saturated liquid and is compressed isentropically to the operating pressure of the boiler • In the pump. the water pressure and temperature increases somewhat during the isentropic compression process due to a slight decrease in specific volume of water • The superheated vapor enters the turbine and expands isentropically and produces work by the rotating shaft.

the condenser. and piping between various compunents. • Only . • In actual condensers.4% of the turbine work output is required to operate the pump. • The major source of irreversibility is the heat loss from the steam to the surroundings.Rankine cycle statements • Rankine cycle power plant converts 26% of the heat it recieves in the boiler to net work. the better is the cycle. . • The pressure in the condenser is usually very small. • Fluid friction causes pressure drops in the boiler. the liquid is usually subcooled to prevent cavitation. • The lesser the back work ratio.

the water must be pumped to a sufficient higher pressure than the ideal cycle. and thus the temperature at which heat is rejected.Rankine cycle statements • To compensate pressure drops in Rankine cycle. • To increase the thermal efficiency of rankine cycle. increase the average temperature at which heat is transferred to the working fluid in the boiler. decrease the average temperature at which heat is rejected from the working fluid in the condenser. • To increase the thermal efficiency of rankine cycle. . • Lowering the operating pressure of the condenser automatically lowers the temperature of the steam.

• The average temperature at which heat is added to the steam can be increased without increasing the boiler pressure by superheating the steam to high temperature. • To take advantage of the increased efficiencies at low pressure. . • Superheating the steam to higher temperatures decrease the moisture content of the steam at the turbine exit. the condenser of steam power plants usually operate well below the atmospheric pressure.Rankine cycle statements • The overall effect of lowering the condenser pressure is an increase in the efficiency of rankine cycle.

• As the number of stages is increased. the expansion and reheat process approached an isothermal process at the maximum temperature.Rankine cycle statements • Presently the highest steam temperature allowed at the turbine inlet is about 620⁰C. . • Raises the average temperature at which heat is added to the steam raises the thermal efficiency of the cycle. • In a reheat cycle. the optimum reheat pressure is about ¼ of the maximum cycle. • The average temperature during the reheat process can be increased by increasing the number of expansion and reheat stages.

• A closed feedwater heater is more expansive than the open feedwater heater. • A trap allows the liquid to be throttled to a lower pressure region but traps the vapor. . • Regeneration also provides a convenient means of dearating the feedwater to prevent corrosion in the boiler.Rankine cycle statements • The main purpose of reheating is to reduce the moisture content of the steam at the final stage expansion. • The cycle efficiency increases further as the number of feedwater heaters is increased.

Rankine cycle statements • Cogeneration is the production of more than one useful form of energy from the same energy source. . one at high temperatures and the other at relative low temperatures. • A binary cycles is composed of two separate cycle. • The overall thermal efficiency of a power plant can be increased by binary cycles or combined cycles.

Wnet. determine QA.Problem solving Steam is generated at 4. (b) Considering that a Rankine cycle occurs between the same limits. and ec. (c) What mass flow rate is required for a net output of 30000 kW? . (a) For a Rankine cycle operating between these limits.1 MPa and 440⁰C and condensation occurs at .105 MPa. compute the thermal efficiency and the heat rate. QB.

4 MPa. . At this point. For the cycle and 1 kg of steam determine (a) QA (b) Wnet (c) ec . It re enters the turbine at 1.Problem solving • In a reheat engine cycle steam at 8. For the engine determine (d) W (e) ec and (f) the steam flow for an engine output of 40000 kW.006 MPa.3 Mpa and 720 deg C. the steam is withdrawn and passed through a reheater.0 MPa and 485 deg C enters the turbine and expands to 1. Expansion now occurs to the condenser pressure of .

06 MPa. find (a) the amount of steam extracted (b) W and (c) e. and (e) steam rate .Problem solving • Steam is delivered to an engine at 5. compute (d) W and e. For and ideal cycle. steam is extracted for feedwater heating at . Before condensation at 31 deg C.4 MPa and 600 deg C. For the ideal engine and the same states.

ee and the ideal steam rate. After expansion in the turbine to 150 deg C. The remaining steam expands to the condenser pressure of . ec . . find Wnet . For 1 kg of steam.Problem solving • Steam at 5 MPa and 365 deg C enters a turbine and expands until it becomes saturated. m1 kg is extracted for feedwater heating. The steam is withdrwan and reheated to 330 deg C.016 MPa.

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