# Inductive Proximity Sensors

 Brett Anderson
 ECE 5230  Assignment #1

Outline
 1. To Explore Further
 2. Major Applications  3. Theory of Operation  4. Possible Measurements  5. Sensor Outputs

 6. Applications
 7. Conclusions

com  www.com/au .com  http://www.davidson.ndt- ed.allenbradley.htm  www.bently.org/EducationResources/Community College/EddyCurrents/Physics/mutualin ductance.References  www.

vibration.asp  Here is a great presentation on monitoring industrial systems: www.org/Meeting/0903/ Gearbox%20Spectral%20Components %20Presentation%20V2.com/articles/apnotes/an04 7.To Explore Further  An interesting paper on applications: www.ppt .bently.

Major Applications  The Eddy Current probe has many applications in industry  These applications are varied. accurate results  These sensors are robust. and can typically handle extreme environments  These applications are discussed in greater detail in later slides . but all require reliable.

Theory of Operation  These sensors use mutual inductance between a known inductor and a conductive material  Commonly referred to as “eddy current” probes  Mutual inductance is a function of the distance between the inductor and the material .

ndted.org/EducationResources/Com munityCollege/EddyCurrents/ .How “Eddy Currents” Work  An inductive coil is placed near a conductive surface  An AC voltage (typically around 2Mhz) is applied to the coil  Mutual inductance begins to occur Source: http://www.

ndted.How “Eddy Currents” Work  The coil generates a magnetic field  Circular or “Eddy Currents” begin to flow in the conductive material  These currents resemble an eddy in a stream of water http://www.org/EducationResources/Com munityCollege/EddyCurrents/ .

org/EducationResources/Com munityCollege/EddyCurrents/ .ndted.How “Eddy Currents” Work  The Eddy Currents generate their own magnetic field  These fields have interaction with the coil through mutual inductance  This leads to a measurable result http://www.

What can be measured?  Electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability of the target material  The amount of material cutting through the coils of the magnetic field  The condition of the material(whether it contains cracks or defects  Lift-Off .

and other important applications .What is Lift-Off?  Lift-Off is a very important measurement that can be made by Eddy Current Sensors  It represents the distance from the coil to the test material  This leads to a great number of industrial. manufacturing.

and outputs a DC voltage which is proportional to the distance from the sensor to the conductive target  This output voltage is linear over the specified range of the specific sensor .Sensor Output in Proximity Applications  A demodulator demodulates the signal from the sensor.

but typically not more that several inches .Typical Sensor Output  Provides very high resolution output over ranges on the order of millimeters  The range an be increased depending on the application.

special calibration is needed to ensure accurate measurement of each specific material  This usually involves some alteration of the signal conditioning and demodulation process . most proximity probes are calibrated to measure 4140 steel  Because different materials have different conductivity and permeability.Calibration  From the factory.

Applications  Can be used as an encoder that monitors rotation  Can measure thing like speed and acceleration Source: AllenBradly.com .

com .Encoder Output  This is what the output looks like when being used as an encoder  The peaks represent the teeth on the sprocket  Speed and acceleration can be determined from this output data Source: AllenBradly.

com .Applications(Cont)  Used in Automated Assembly lines  Sensor detects each part as it passes  Provides Accurate. Real-Time information about quantity and quality in manufacturing processes Source: AllenBradly.

which can save millions of dollars in preventing damage to malfunctioning machinery.Another Application  Inductive sensors monitor automated machinery  They can detect anything out of the ordinary and serve as a fail safe shutoff.com . Source: AllenBradly.

strenuous environments  Inductive Sensors and be linked to a data system through a robust cable allowing for the monitoring of these systems  Information gathered by these sensors can greatly add to the life and health of high power turbines and generators .Power Systems Applications  High Power turbines often operate in high temperature.

they can monitor the X and Y position of the shaft as it rotates  When bearing start to go out. the movement in the X and Y direction begins to increase  This is detected by the sensors.Turbine Shaft Orbit Monitoring  Two inductive sensors can be used to monitor the health of a turbine  When placed 90 degrees apart. and the bearings can be replaced before serious damage occurs .

Illustration of Orbit Monitoring .

the system is shut down to prevent serious damage . there is maximum limit that the shaft is allowed to vibrate. once that point is passed.Vibration Monitoring  An inductive sensor can monitor the vibration of a turbine shaft  Typically.

General Applications  Good for many short distance. high resolution applications  Can be used to detect the presence or absence of conductive material  Good for long distance monitoring of machinery and industrial devices  Usually works well in extreme environments .

Other Applications  Quality Control  Autonomous removal of bad parts on an assembly line  Reliable and consistent results .

Other Applications(Cont)  Real-Time information on the position of railroad track switches  Reliable due to resistance to changing conditions .

Limitations  Very short range of measurement  Material being measured must be conductive  Target must be larger than the sensor tip  Can only measure displacement in relation to the sensor .

reliable outputs  Can be used in varied conditions .Conclusion  Inductive sensors operate on the principle of mutual induction  They are useful in a wide variety of applications  They provide high-resolution.