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Overview of Real Application Clustering Features and Functionality
What is RAC? Cache Fusion Failover and Load-balancing Transparent Application Failover (TAF) Other RAC Features
RAC – What is it?
Multiple instances of Oracle running on up to 8 nodes Multiple instances share a single physical database All instances can simultaneously execute transactions against the single database Caches are synchronized using Oracle’s Global Cache Management technology (Cache Fusion)
With 10g RAC. clustered database is built into Oracle .History of Oracle RAC Previous Oracle Clustering Products Oracle FailSafe on Windows OPS (Oracle Parallel Server) on multiple platforms OPS to RAC: 7.3 OPS 8i OPS 9i RAC 10g RAC The clustering mechanism used to be more dependent on the Operating System.
Oracle RAC Features Full Cache Fusion Enhanced coordination of cache management and distributed lock manager (DLM) Lock simplification and automation Global Cache Service coordinates local buffer cache and remote block transfers Enhanced IPC Resource configuration simplification and automation Improved cluster aware tools Enhanced DBCA Oracle Enterprise Manager and Grid Control Integration Enhancements .
RAC uses “Shared Everything” Users Server Server Server Server Database .
How RAC clustering is done One set of data All nodes in the cluster see the same set of data All nodes have access Any node can update the data .
Increased Manageability One virtual system to configure and manage Single Oracle Database Single management console Single system image for the database integrated with the cluster Cluster-wide monitoring and diagnostics Oracle Enterprise Manager Integration (9i) Oracle DBConsole and Grid Control Integration (10g) .
What’s not Shared Disk access Resources that manage data All instances have common data & controls files Each node has its own dedicated: Not Shared System memory Operating system Database instance Application software Log files and Rollback segments Each instance has individual .What’s shared.
RAC can perform Load-balancing Failover .
Load-Balancing through the Listener Client Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 Node 4 Database .
How workload is balanced Nodes report CPU usage to listeners Node 1 Client Database Node 2 .
How workload is balanced Listeners choose least busy node when request comes in from client Node 1 Client Database Node 2 .
Load-Balancing Users Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 Node 4 Database .
A disk-based heartbeat mechanism uses the control file to monitor node membership and the cluster interconnect is regularly checked to determine correct operation. RAC checks to detect node and network failures. Reduced time to recovery with concurrent resource configuration and instance (cache) recovery Enhanced failover reliability in 10g with the use of Virtual IP addresses (VIPs) . the system dynamically redistributes the workload among the surviving cluster nodes.Failover If a node in the shared disk cluster fails.
Failover Users X Server Server Server Server Database .
Transparent Application Failover Masks failures to end users. they don’t need to log back into the system Applications and users are transparently reconnected to another node Applications and queries continue uninterrupted Transactions can failover and replay Login context maintained DML transactions are rolled back .
RAC Improvements for Oracle 9i Full Cache Fusion Enhanced coordination of cache management and distributed lock manager (DLM) Lock simplification and automation Global Cache Service coordinates local buffer cache and remote block transfers Enhanced IPC (InterProcess Communication) Resource configuration simplification and automation .
Oracle 10g RAC New Features Integrated Clusterware Management No third-party clusterware software required Application workloads can be managed through named services Enterprise Manager manages RAC instances as a single image Fast recovery between the database and mid-tier applications Reduced message traffic. memory usage. and other resources Automatic Workload Management Single System Image Management Fast Connection Failover Performance Improvements Zero Downtime Patching Patches may be applied one node at a time without downtime New cluster diagnostic tool and improved diagnostic tools Cluster Verification and Improved Diagnostic Tools .
Improved performance with 10g .Full Cache Fusion Is a major feature of RAC starting with 9i The underlying technology that enables RAC Protocol that allows instances to combine their data caches into a shared global cache Allows any node to get the most up-to-date data information from the cache of any other node in the cluster without having to access the disk drives again.
What is Cache Fusion? When do I care about it? “Dirty” block of data is created Data from disk is read into memory on a node Data is updated on that node Data hasn’t been written to disk yet. Another node requests the data .
“ABC” block of data written to the disk drives in the database Node A Node B ABC Data .
“ABC” block of data read into memory on Node A Node A Node B ABC Data ABC Data .
“ABC” updated to “XYZ” in cache Node A ABC Data XYZ Data Node B ABC Data .
Node B requests data block I want data! Gimme! Gimme! Node A ABC Data XYZ Data Node B ABC Data .
Node A must write data block to disk drive I want data! Gimme! Gimme! Node A ABC Data XYZ Data Node B ABC Data XYZ Data .
Node B must read data block from disk drive Node A ABC Data XYZ Data Node B XYZ Data ABC Data XYZ Data .
Now with RAC Cache Fusion I want data! Gimme! Gimme! Node A ABC Data XYZ Data Node B XYZ Data ABC Data Data is transferred immediately via the interconnect Shared cache minimizes slow I/O .
Shared Cache Across Nodes Users Server Server Server Server Database .
ora parameters required Resource affinity to move the location of the resource masters for a database file to the instance where block operations are most frequently occurring.Resource Simplification and Automation No init. Dynamic resource remastering is used to implement resource affinity for increased performance. This optimizes Ability to move the ownership of a resource between instances of Real Application Clusters. Dynamic resource remastering .
where is the heartbeat? .Review What does cache fusion avoid that was mandatory in previous versions of Oracle Parallel Server? Which Oracle process is most important in managing user session failover? If the purpose of the interconnect is NOT to serve as a “heartbeat”.
Summary New Features Shared Everything Clustering Cache Fusion RAC Clustering failover & load-balancing .