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Handover and Power Control

Hand-over
Hand-over is a process that transfers a MS that is in setting up or busy status to a new traffic channel. Generally, hand-over will occur under the following two conditions: 1. A busy MS which is moving from a cell into another; 2. A MS is making a call at overlapping area of two cells, one of which is very busy in traffic. BSC notify MS to measure signal intensity and channel quality of adjacent cells. This call will be handed over to the cell which is not busy in traffic. This kind of hand-over is occurred to balance inter-cell traffics.

Causes Resulting Hand-over


1 Weak signal level

2 Bad signal quality 3 Severe interference, i.e., the channel a MS is occupying is interfered suddenly and therefore is forced to use another channel of the same cell; 4 The MS is far away from the BS; 5 A more appropriate cell exists. This handover is based on the whole system consideration aiming to reduce the overall system interference;

Purpose of Hand-over
(1) Save the calls in progressbad quality) (2) Cell-boundary handing over to improve ongoing calls (weak signal) (3) intra-cell hand-over reducing interference within a cell (severe interference) (4) Compelled hand-over to balance traffic distribution of inter-cells.

Types of Hand-over
(1)Intra-cell hand-over: hand-over occurs in the same cell. Controlled independently by the BSC the cell attached to. (2)Inter-cell hand-over of the same BSC: involving by MSC is not needed. (3)Inter-BSC hand-over of same MSC: Before and after hand-over, the two cells belong to different two BSCs which are controlled by the same MSC. All the MSC and BSCs are involved. (4)Inter-MSCs hand-over: Before and after hand-over, the two cells belong to different two MSCs. All the relevant MSCs and BSCs are involved.

Hand-over inside BSC


M BTS BSC M BTS S S

In this case, BSC should set up a new link with new BTS and assign a TCH in the new cell for MS.

Thursday, August 08, 2013

Hand-over between Different BSCs


BSC Old Link M S MSC/VLR BSC M S New Link

1) The old BSC make a hand-over request to MSC which then establish new link with new BSC and new BTS, and retain an idle TCH in the new cell for MS. 2) MSC is responsible for releasing the old link. 3) After the call is completed, MS should originate location updating because of the change of LAI.

Inter-MSC Hand-over
MSCA 7 1 5 2 3 4 4 6 BSC A 5 5
3

M S Old Link New Link

3 MSCB 3 6

BSC B

M S

Hand-over Procedures
1 BSCA sends hand-over request to MSCA when deemed necessary according to MSs measurement report. 2 MSCA sends this request to MSCB which is responsible for setting up links with BSCB and BTSB. 3 MSCB sends back radio channel acknowledgement to MSCA. 4 Communication links are established between MSCA and MSCB according to Hand-over Number(HON). 5 MSCA send hand-over command to MS who then handed over to a new TCH. 6 BSCB send to MSCB, then to MSCA the command of hand-over completion. 7 MSCA controls BSCA and BTSA to release the old TCH.

Hand-over Classification
(1)Synchronous: MS use the same TA both in destination

and target cell. This usually applies to hand-over of same cell or different sectors within the same cell. This is the hand-over with highest speed. (2)Asynchronous: MS dont know the TA to be used in target cell. When either of the two cells doesnt synchronize with BSC, this mode should be used. The hand-over speed is low. (3)Pseudo-synchronous: MS is able to calculate out the TA it should use in the target cell. When both cells have synchronized with BSC, this mode may be used. The hand-over speed is fast.

Hand-over flow chart


MS
MEAS REP

BTS1

BTS2
MEAS RES CH ACT CH ACT ACK

BSC

MSC

HO CMD HO ACCESS PHY INFO SABM

DRHO CMD HO DET

EST IND UA HO COM DIHO COM

DT1HO PERF

RF CH REL RF CH REL ACK

Queuing and Forced Disconnection


(1) Queuing: To increase the successful rate of

handover, when no radio resource is available, the applicant of hand-over may be put into queuing and wait for release of radio resources. (2) Forced disconnection: when in emergency and no radio resource is available, some subscribers with lower priority may be disconnected, or handed out forcibly to ensure that the subscribers with higher priority could keep their calls continuously.

Base Station Pre-processing(1)


The base station receives the following meas_rpt:
(1) Meas_rpts made by MS and reported from SACCH
Downlink RXLEV Downlink RXQUAL(BER) Other adjacent cells downlink RXLEV (less than 6, designated by BA list) Interference strip

(2) Measurement report made by BTS Uplink RXLEV Uplink RXQUAL TA

Base Station Pre-processing(2)


Processing of BTS measurement data
(1) RXLEV_XXXX(DL or UL) For each connection, at least 32 sampling data are retained and the average of RX level is calculated out by BSS in each SACCH period.

(2) Adjacent cells BCCH carrier receiving level RXLEV_NCELL(n) For each connection and each cell, the latest 32 sampling data are stored by BSS to calculate out the adjacent cells BCCH carrier receiving level.

Base Station Pre-processing(3)


(3) Power Budget(PBGT) For each connection and each allowable cell, BSS calculates PBGT as follows
PBGT(n) =(Min(MS_TXPWR_MAX,P)-RXLEV_DL PWR_C_D)+(Min(MS_TXPWR_MAX(n),P) RXLEV_NCELL(n))

Where,
RXLEV_NCELL(n) and RXLEV_DL are got by above definitions. PWR_C_D is the difference of cell-allowed downward maximum power with actual power MS_TXPWR_MAX(current traffic channel) MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) (adjacent cell n traffic channel) P is the maximum transmission power of MS

Base Station Pre-processing(4)


(4) TA For each connection, BSS calculate the TA using parameters Hreqt and Hreqave (5) Interference strip BSS averages interference ( using INTAVE) on idle time-slots and maps to five classes called strips.

Parameters in connection with hand-over


(1)UpLevTh,N,P (upward level threshold) (2)UpQualTh,N, (upward quality threshold) (3)DwLevTh,N,P (downward level threshold) (4)DwQualTh,N,P (downward quality threshold) (5)UpIntfTh,N,P (upward interference threshold) (6)DwIntfTh,N,P (downward interference threshold (7)MsDistTh,N,P (distance threshold,same unit with TA) (8)HoMargin(n) Adjacent cells hand-over margin

Threshold Comparison (1)


1. Hand-over will occur if at least P out of N upward levels are lower than UpLevTh. 2. Hand-over will occur if at least P out of N downward levels are lower than DwLevTh. 3. Hand-over will occur if at least P out of N upward levels are higher than UpQualTh. 4. Hand-over will occur if at least P out of N downward levels are higher than DwQualTh.

Threshold Comparison (2)


5. Hand-over will occur if the latest P out of N upward levels are higher than UpIntfTh and condition 3 is met at the same time. 6. Hand-over will occur if the latest P out of N downward levels are higher than DwIntfTh and condition 4 is met at the same time. 7. Hand-over will occur if the latest P out of N TAs are higher than MsDistTh. 8. Hand-over will occur if PBGT of some adjacent cell is higher than its corresponding HoMargin.

Hand-over Algorithm
The hand-over algorithm BSC adopts is based on the following equation: (1) RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RXLEV_MIN(n) + Max (0, Pa) (1) Where: Pa = (MS_TXPWR_MAX(n)-P) (2) PBGT(n)- HO_MARGIN(n) > 0

BSS selects from all adjacent cells that both meets equation (1) and (2) and queue them from large PBGT to small ones and serves as candidate adjacent cells.

Power Control
Purpose of Power Control BTS Power Control Strategy

Purpose of Power Control


Lower interference within a cell Save power Premises: Call quality or data transmission quality be guaranteed

Power Control Procedures


Save measured data

Average measured data

Power control decision

Send power control command

Measured data correction

Relation of Level and Power Control


63
Fast power control zone

High
Upper limit

Normal
Lower limit

Low
Fast power control zone

Relation of BER with Power Control


0
Fast power control zone Upper limit

Low Normal

Lower limit Fast power control zone

High
7

BTS Power Control Strategy


Keep current transmission power when received level is normal. Lower the transmission power when received level is high. Increase the transmission power when received level is low. Keep current transmission power when BER is normal. Increase the transmission power when BER is high. Lower the transmission power when BER is low.

Corresponding Relation between RXQUAL and BER RXQUAL BER (%) Typical(%) 0 BER<0.2 0.14 1 0.2<BER<0.4 0.28 2 0.4<BER<0.8 0.57 3 0.8<BER<1.6 1.13 4 1.6<BER<3.2 2.26 5 3.2<BER<6.4 4.53 6 6.4<BER<12. 9.05 8 7 12.8<BER 18.10

MS Power Control Strategy


Normal Level LEVECAUSE = 0 Low Level LEVELCAUSE = 1
0 High Level LEVECAUSE =2 1 1 1 2 2 2

Normal BERQUALCAUSE = 0 Low BERQUALCAUSE = 1 High BERQUALCAUSE = 2


2 0 1 2 0 1 2 INCREASE STAY STAY INCREASE DECREASE DECREASE INCREASE

Range of Power Control


1 BTS Power Control BTS has 6 classes of static power configured by network, each class has 15 levels of dynamic power which can be configured by network. 2 MS Power Control GSM900 class A MS power capability 43dbm20W GSM900 class B MS power control 39dbm 8W GSM900 class C MS power capability 37dbm 5W GSM900 class D MS power capability 33dbm 2W GSM900 class E MS power capability 29dbm 0.8W GSM900 power control range of MS is 43dbm ~ 5dbm at least 2dbm one step DCS1800 class A MS power control capability 30dbm1W DCS1800 class B MS power control capability 24dbm0.25W DCS1800 class C MS power control capability 36dbm4W DCS1800 class D MS power control range 36dbm ~ 0dbm2dbm

Thank you