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Design Design For For Recycling Recycling

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A AProducts ProductsLife LifeCycle Cycle From From Craddle Craddle to to Re-Incarnation Re-Incarnation

Manufacture Mining Environment: air, sea, land Material processing Product manufacture Distribution

3 2 Demanufacture Product demanufacture

Use

Disposal

Material demanufacture

Product take-back

Clean fuel Energy recovery with production via pyrolysis incineration

1 = Direct reuse 2 = Remanufacture of reusable components 3 = Reprocessing of recycled materi al 4 = Monomer / raw material regeneration

The term demanufacture is appearing more and more, especially in the electronics industry (DEC, Motorola, AT&T, IBM), to characterize the process opposite to manufacturing involved in recycling materials and products.
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Growing GrowingImportance Importanceof of DFR DFR Dwindling resources


Landfill space, especially in (over) crowded Europe Raw material (lesser short term importance)

For example:
Currently, around 80-90% of electronics are being sent to landfills! The National Renewable Energy Laboratory estimates that 30 billion lbs. (14 billion kg) of plastics end up being landfilled each year, and only 1% of plastic waste is recycled.

Social and political climate is changing


Big social and political push in Europe Some states, US Congress and vice-president Gore may want to follow Europe

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European EuropeanTake TakeBack BackLegislation Legislation European Take-Back Law requires automobile (and other) manufacturers to take back all vehicles which were ever sold in that country. The German (draft) regulation on Electronic Waste obliges the retailer to take back used electronic equipment from the enduser. The manufacturer/importer is obliged to take back the products from the retailer. Voluntary agreements have been widely accepted by industry and the threat of legislation has subsided slightly.

Manufacturer

Manufactured goods

Take back of retired products


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European European Commission CommissionProposal Proposal for for Automobiles Automobiles Objectives
Avoidance of waste Reduction of landfill demand Reduction of toxicity

Recycling Targets
Maximum of 15% of car weight can be landfilled or incinerated without energy recovery beginning in 2002. For new models beginning in 2002, maximum of 10% disposal. Maximum of 5% of car weight disposal in 2015. From 1995, cars must be depolluted before shredding. By 1998, 100% of all wrecks to be collected.

A dream for politicians and a nightmare for car manufacturers ? Maybe, but:
In Europe, people are VERY serious about cleaning up the environment. The US is generally expected to follow European successes.
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Cooperation Cooperation in in Automobile AutomobileIndustry Industry Legislation has caused closer collaboration among vehicle manufacturers.
In Europe, several (international) collaborative projects are underway. Chrysler is the only US company in EURHEKAR which is a consortium of nonGerman car manufacturers.

BMW and Volvo seem to be leading in Europe In the US, the Big Three formed the Vehicle Recycling Partnership and the Vehicle Recycling and Dismantling Center in Highland Park to look at recycling issues. 10 million vehicles are already recycled in the US annually. (As an aside, name another option to beat take-back laws)
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Definitions Definitions American American Automobile Automobile Manufacturers Manufacturers Association Association

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Recycle Recycleand andRe-Use Re-Use

Recycle:
A series of activities, including collection, separation, and processing, by which products or other materials are recovered from or otherwise diverted from the solid waste stream for use in the form of raw materials in the manufacture of new products. Materials which are diverted for use as an energy source should be documented separately under the category of energy recovery US EPA uses the same definition.

Re-Use:
The series of activities, including collection, separation, and in some cases processing, by which products are recovered from the waste stream for use in their original intended manner. Remanufactured components fall under the classification of re-use. (Germans refer to this as product recycling.)

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AAMA AAMADefinitions Definitions (cont.) (cont.)

Recyclable (recyclability)
Refers to products or materials that can be diverted from the waste stream and returned to use as functioning part or a raw material for the manufacture or assembly of a new product through a process that is currently and widely available. If the infrastructure to recycle the product or material is limited, the claim should be so qualified. Recyclability claims should be qualified on a weight basis or in terms of which portions of a product or package are recyclable. In Europe, incineration with energy recovery (energy recycling) is also considered an option for recycling.

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Common CommonErrors Errorsand andMistakes Mistakes Do not make unqualified claims! Always justify!
this product is recyclable (misleading; how much, what process?) 90% of this vehicle by weight is recylable (prove it !!) parts are marked for recyclability (justify implication that recycling is possible)

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Post Postand andPre-Consumer Pre-ConsumerMaterials Materials Post-Consumer Materials


Those products or materials generated by a business or consumer that have served their intended end uses and that have been recovered from or otherwise diverted from the waste stream for the purpose of recycling.

Pre-Consumer Materials
Those materials generated during any step in the production of a material or product that have been recovered or otherwise diverted from the waste stream for the purpose of recycling. This does not include home scrap. Pre-consumer materials are also referred to as rework, post-industrial, and post-process materials.

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Home HomeScrap Scrap Home Scrap


Those scrap materials, virgin material scrap, or by-products generated from and commonly reused by the industry within an original manufacturing process. This cannot be claimed as recycled content. Plastic regrind is an example of home scrap.

Because you cannot claim it as recycled content does not mean you should not recycle it !

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Recycled Recycled Content Content Recycled Content


The portion of a materials or products weight that is composed of materials that have been recovered from or otherwise diverted from the waste stream either during the manufacturing process (pre-consumer) or after consumer use (post-consumer). Distinctions should be made between pre- and post-consumer materials. (!!!) Unqualified claims can only be made if the entire product or package is made of recycled materials. The term recyclate may be used to refer to a material that contains at least 25% post-consumer recycled content by weight. Not needed when recycled content is specified.

We want to maximize recycled content as much as possible.

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Recycling Recycling Rate Rate

Recycling rate
The percentage by weight of a given product or material category that is recycled.

We want to maximize the recycling rate as much as possible.

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Dismantling Dismantling and and Recycling Recycling Strategies Strategies and and Processes Processes

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Recovery RecoveryPriorities Priorities 1) Re-Use


Highest priority from environmental point of view All resources (material and energy) put into product during manufacturing are preserved. Requires non-destructive disassembly.

2 ) Material recycling
Most common. Only materials are preserved, all geometric details are lost. Allows for destructive disassembly. Also done for recovery of valuable material (e.g. gold in electronics)

3) Energy recovery
Only energy embodied in materials is preserved through incineration or pyrolysis.

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Basic BasicProcesses Processes

Disassembly is not the only process For remanufacture and re-use, the following processes are typically considered:
disassembly (non-destructive), cleaning, inspection and sorting, part upgrading or renewal, re-assembly.

For material recycling:


material separation (disassembly), sorting, reprocessing.
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Shredding Shredding (destructive (destructive disassembly) disassembly)


Arguably, vehicle recycling became economically feasible with shredder technology. Shredders reduce vehicles to small fragments which may be sorted magnetically into ferrous and non-ferrous materials. Electronics industry is also using shredder technology. Typical Typicalvalues valuesfor forvehicles vehicles according accordingto toto toAAMA AAMAbrochure: brochure:
Automotive AutomotiveShredder ShredderResidue Residue24%: 24%: Plastic 34% Plastic 34% Fluids Fluids17% 17% Non-Ferrous Non-FerrousMetals Metals5.6%: 5.6%: Rubber 12% Rubber 12% Aluminum Aluminum Ferrous Glass FerrousMetals Metals70.4%: 70.4%: Glass16% Copper 16% Copper Iron Other Iron Other21% Lead 21% Lead steel steel Zinc Zinc Note: Note: Validity Validityof ofsome somenumbers numbershas hasbeen beenquestioned. questioned. E.g., E.g.,fluid fluidpercentage percentageis istoo toohigh high
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Computer ComputerMaterial Material Composition Compositionand andRecyclability Recyclability A recent Carnegie Mellon University study estimates that up to 150 million used computers will be piled in the US's landfills by 2005 Feasibility of recycling computers:
About 30 percent of a personal computer is steel, which fetches about 1.5 cents a pound; 10 percent is aluminum, worth 11 to 23 cents a pound; and 10 percent is boards and miscellaneous wire, including 1 percent of gold worth about 90 cents a pound. Also, about 50 percent of today's personal coputers are plastics, which can be returned to their original makers for recycling.

Thus, effectively recycled, only about one-half of one percent of an entire computer system or part actually will actually have to go to landfill.
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Basic BasicShredder Shredder Process Process


Vehicle Reusable/Remanufacturable Parts Dismantler Easily Accessible Pure Materials Hammer Mill or other Shredder Magnet Eddy Current Separator Ferrous Metals Non-ferrous metals Density separation Some polymers Expected Future Viability A.S.R.

Although high in value, plastics are unattractive to recyclers because of


the difficulties in separation and identification of the various types, the contaminants used in most plastics.

Automotive Shredder Residue

Currently, all metals (ferrous and non-ferrous) can be recycled.

The challenge of using mechanical shredding (instead of dismantling) is that these products contain a variety of contaminants that threaten the purity of the plastics: acoustical foam, metal inserts, paint, brackets, coatings, and labels.
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Semi-Automated Semi-Automated Disassembly Disassembly Line Lineand andCenter Center (De (De Mosselaar MosselaarBV) BV)

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Advanced AdvancedAutomated Automated(Mechanical) (Mechanical) Separation SeparationTechniques Techniques Many believe that manual separation is too expensive and will not be economically feasible. There is a need for cheap, reliable separation methods Promising separation techniques are primarily based on material properties, for example:
E.g., density-based float-sink separation techniques, Froth-floatation (based on surface properties), air classification, electro-static and magnetic separation.

Also, more reliable identification techniques than human inspection are needed and being developed
E.g., FT-IR (Fourier Transform - Infrared), FT-NIR (same but uses Near Infrared light), FT-Raman (uses a YAG laser)

However, there will always be a need for non-destructive disassembly if substances of concern have been used in the product.
Classic examples are batteries in electronic products.
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Robotic RoboticDisassembly Disassembly Robotic disassembly is being investigated, but requires much study and experimentation
The robot must be highly sensorized, flexible, and intelligent. Disassembly cannot be regarded as reverse assembly because of the variety of products to be recycled and the uncertain state they come in.

Some investigations conclude that robotic disassembly is possible, even if product conditions are uncertain. The main problems encountered are:
Fasteners that require high forces, such as glue Accessibility to parts that are very close together Jamming and wedging of parts Uncertain object conditions

Error detection and recovery needs to be looked into for the future. Also, robot systems need to be optimized for specific electronic product types
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Computer Computer Recycling RecyclingProcesses Processes The large amount of ferrous metals, mainly steel, favors current recycling practices of shredding the product and sorting with a simple magnet. The printed circuit boards (PCB), plastic, and glass present the current challenges.
PCBs may contain valuable metals and reusable circuit components but must undergo expensive and labor intensive disassembly. Plastics must be identified and sorted accurately to be recycled, and there are huge varieties used in todays products. In addition, many contain hazardous additives for flame retardation or other purposes .

Finally, the last major portion of the computer is in glass, located in the monitor.
The obstacle here is finding a way to remove the lead, phosphorous, and other hazardous additives from the glass so that it can be recycled.

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Procedures Proceduresfor forElectronic ElectronicRecycling Recycling (from (from Resource ResourceConcepts ConceptsEnviro) Enviro)
1 Separate, segregate and track, by customer order, all incoming product. 2 Examine, identify and separate all incoming material into one of the following classifications:
A. Non-proprietary product that Can be refurbished and remarketed; Has no resale value and must be disposed of in its entirety; Has no resale value and contains hazardous materials B. Proprietary product that (at customer discretion) Can be refurbished and remarketed with customer concurrence; Must be disassembled and only the non-proprietary components refurbished and remarketed; Must be destroyed beyond all recognition.

3 Repackage all hazardous material for shipment to EPA registered recyclers 4 Return all ferrous and non-ferrous metal, plastic, wire, and cable to reuse through their respective closed-loop recyclers. 5 Ship de-populated Printed Wiring Assemblies to precious metal refiners for the metal recovery 6 Ship CRTs to an EPA registered smelter for recycling lead and glass. 7 Ship batteries to approved EPA sites for reuse or disposal. 8 Provide a Certificate of Destruction to our customers for all material disposed of or destroyed beyond recognition.
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Developing Developing an an End-Of-Life End-Of-Life System System for for Product Product Demanufacture Demanufacture Basic Basic Questions Questions to to Ask Ask

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Developing Developingan an End-of-Life End-of-LifeSystem System Draw up a profile of the products current end-of-life system
Who owns the product? What kind of ownership is involved? What is the price? How big is the product? What is the average life of the product? What is the weight of the product?

Analyse the main reasons why users dispose of the product


Is the product disposed of because of technical failure? Is the product sensitive to trends? Are there new products on the market which offer more features?

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Developing Developingan an End-of-Life End-of-LifeSystem System (cont.) (cont.) Determine what legislation and regulations affect the end-oflife system
To what extent is the manufacturer responsible for the end-of-life phase? Does a take-back obligation already exist for discarded products? How can the costs of returning an processing the product be financed? What rules and prices apply with regard to product reuse, material recycling, incineration and dumpin of residual wastes?

Contact the suppliers


Due to specialized expertise, suppliers can usually achieve sub-assembly reuse, recycling more efficiently than the OEM

Establish how the product can be collected


Consumer return system via recycling center Pick-up from last user Return system via retailers
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Developing Developingan an End-of-Life End-of-LifeSystem System (cont.) (cont.) Determine who is going to recycle or process the product
Should the product be processed in house? Should the product be processed by a third party?

Select the most efficient end-of-life system


Use the answers to the preceding to establish a end-of-life scenario Due to the uncertain nature, consider establishing several scenarios

Some trends to keep in mind:


Users will think twice before discarding products Governments will develop more regulations The processing industry will become more effective Technological options will be expanded, especially in mechanical waste processing Market for recycled materials will improve Incineration and burial of waste will be subjected to more regulations and become more expensive
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Basic Basic Cost Cost Factors Factors in in Recycling Recycling

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Profitability Profitabilityof of Recycling Recycling We want to make recycling profitable:

Profit = Revenue Cost


Revenues are obtained from: High value (high demand), undamaged recovered reusable components.
Additional processing (cleaning, inspection, upgrading, reassembly, and redistribution) adds to costs.

High value, uncontaminated scrap materials.


Any contamination which reduces material properties depreciates the material value.

Energy recovered and sold from incineration or pyrolysis.


Lowest revenue of all.

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Common CommonCost Cost Factors Factors Buy back of product ($/product)


Dependent on condition and value of product type.

Transportation costs ($/km)


May also dependent on weight and damage tolerated.

Tip/storage fees ($/product), also for landfilled residue.


Strongly influenced by location of facility and local legislation.

Labor cost ($/hour)


Dependent on level of skills required and location.

Equipment investment cost ($)


Influenced by need for special (expensive) equipment.

Equipment operating cost ($/car, $/hr) Time necessary to recover parts and materials (hr/product)
STRONGLY INFLUENCED BY PRODUCT DESIGN !
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A AQuick QuickCosting CostingExample Example


Recovery of a dashboard:
Removal of dashboard from car = 35 min. Removal of dash components = 35 min. At $20/hour, labor cost - $23
Material Steel / Iron Aluminum Zinc Copper Lead Polyurethane foam Polypropylene Poly Vinyl Chloride ABS Nylon Polycarbonate Polyurethane Polyethylene Polyester Rubber Other polymers Gasoline Oil Antifreeze Other hazardous fluids Glass Plastic Reinforced Fibers Plastic Composite Fillers Miscellaneous Total weight of car Mass Virgin price Scrap price [ kg ] [ % ] [ $ / kg ] [ $ / kg ] 1004 72.38 0.12 71 5.12 1.32 9 0.65 1.07 23 1.66 2.20 10 0.72 0.25 12 0.87 2.20 0.00 15 1.08 1.10 0.11 11 0.79 1.00 0.22 13 0.94 2.50 0.73 10 0.72 3.00 0.00 9 0.65 3.30 0.66 10 0.72 3.50 0.00 5 0.36 0.90 0.40 20 1.44 3.30 0.00 61 4.40 2.45 0.05 5 0.36 2.30 0.06 15 1.08 0.30 5 0.36 0.05 5 0.36 0.06 5 0.36 0.00 39 5 5 28 1395 2.81 0.36 0.36 2.02 100 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

In order to break even with material recycling, more than 10 kg of copper (most valuable scrap material in table) would have to be recovered Or, dash components (gauges, etc) would have to be sold for re-use. Big questions:
What is the market willing to pay for recovered dashboard components? How much value would remanufacture add to recovered components?

Typical 1990 vehicle material mix

Re-Design of dash is desirable !

(Any suggestions how ?)


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Design Design for for Recycling Recycling Approach Approach

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DFR DFRGuidelines Guidelines Common complaint : I have to satisfy my customer demands, my boss, get the product out on time, meet all the deadlines, do DFMA, TQM, etc., and now I also have to worry about RECYCLING ?

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DFR DFRand andDFE DFE Most DFR and Design for Environment (DFE) guidelines also have other benefits (technical, economical, quality). It is argued that the biggest advantage of doing DFE is that it forces more creative thinking.
Some good examples of this can be found in automotive industry.

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How Howto todo doDFX? DFX? Key to success in Design for X (DFX):

Know the process(es) you are designing for. Know the critical technical and economic factors in these processes.
If you are aware of the preceding issues, design guidelines are easy to postulate. Knowledge of corporate goals (and constraints) is also very useful.

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Recycling RecyclingLoop Loopaccording accordingto toGE GEPlastics Plastics

Question:
What would be important design attributes and corresponding design guidelines to ease each of the stages listed in this figure? Also, what trade-offs do they require?
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Designing DesigningTechnical TechnicalProducts Productsfor forease easeof ofrecycling: recycling: Fundamentals Fundamentalsand andrules rulesfor fordesign design
Effort from German engineering society (VDI) to standardize notions about recycling. The purpose of VDI 2243 is to provide engineers a quick and relatively complete overview of useful issues to be considered in modern design for recycling. The 35 page long VDI 2243 guideline contains the following:
An introduction to recycling motivation, application, terminology and definitions, and the general life cycle and design processes. A short discussion on production waste recycling waste streams in production and rules for the designer. A discussion on product recycling (during a products useful life) goals, processes involved, and rules for the designer. A discussion on material and waste recycling (after a products useful life) goals, processes involved, and rules for the designer. A short discussion on the application of design for recycling rules.

German GermanEngineering EngineeringStandard StandardVDI VDI2243 2243

It contains a wealth of information and illustrates the state of the art in design for recycling in Germany. Needless to say it incorporates a lengthy bibliography of publications, however, mostly in German.
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Recycling RecyclingLoops Loopsaccording accordingto toVDI VDI2243 2243

VDI 2243 makes distinctions between primary and secondary re-use and recycling. Please note that the German use slightly different definitions (after translation).

Resource

Raw material collection and processing Use of product and / or consumption

Secondary reuse

Production Secondary reuse

Primary reuse

Recycling of production waste

Primary reuse

Recycling during the use of the product

Stick to AAMA definitions !

Waste from production being reprocessed

Reprocessing repair etc.

Material recycling

Material reprocessing

= Disposal = Inciniration

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A AGeneral GeneralDesign Designfor forRecycling RecyclingApproach Approach


Recyclability and Recycled Content Assessment and Improvement Tasks
1 Assessment and Planning Obtain initial targets

Assess existing design

Identify planned changes affecting recyclability and recycled content

Approach is very similar to DFE approach. Three phases:


Yes

Recyclability is 100% or close and recycled content exceeds targets? 2 - Product and Process Improvement No Obtain detailed information

Minor improvements needed

Distribute information to suppliers (if needed)

Major improvements needed

Assessment and planning Improvement Implementation and documentation

Identify and prioritize limiting factors

Identify design alternatives

Select design changes

Reevaluate new design

Minor or major ?

Yes

Improvements needed ?

No 3 - Implementation and Documentation Implement proposed design

Document recyclability and recycled content of new design

Provide feedback

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Recyclability Recyclability Assessment Assessment

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US USVehicle Vehicle Recycling RecyclingPartnership PartnershipApproach Approach The US Vehicle Recycling Partnership is one of the few (if not the only one) industry organizations who have identified and recommended an industry wide recyclability assessment method To make a recyclability assessment, a four step approach should be followed:
1) Data collection (identify the components, materials, and fastening mechanism in the assembly to be rated). 2) Rate the components according to the rating scheme. 3) Calculate the percentage recyclability by weight. 4) Identify areas for improvement.

Step 1 is an inventory step, but helpful in ensuring a complete and correct assessment.
The identification of materials) is also needed to determine whether any substances of concern have been used.
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Step Step1 1--Data DataCollection Collection General: Most, if not all, of the information can be obtained from the Bill of Materials. Materials: A proper identification of the materials used in a component is essential because these materials define its recyclability.
Surface treatments (like paints, varnishes) and bonding agents (glues) must also be identified because of their potential to contaminate materials (especially plastics) to be recycled. In some cases, one percent contamination is enough to ruin a batch of high grade plastics for recycling.

Fasteners: A proper identification of fastening mechanisms is important because these largely define the separation process needed in case two components need to be separated for recycling.
Permanent connections (like welds, heat stakes) almost always require some form of mechanical separation. Non-permanent mechanical connections (like bolted joints, screws) allow for manual as well as mechanical separation. The fastener material and coatings need to be evaluated as well, because it may Georgia Institute of Technology need separation to avoid contamination.

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Step Step2 2 Rate Ratethe theComponents Components The calculation used to evaluate vehicle recyclability is based on two ratings for each component:
a recyclability rating, and a material separation rating

Rating Scales:
A rating of 1 is the best. A rating of 1, 2, or 3 for both recyclability and separability is considered acceptable for the European market and should be strived for. Ratings of 4, 5, and 6 are considered poor. In contrast, the United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) rules are stricter. At the moment, the FTC only considers products/component with a recyclability rating of 2 to be called recyclable.

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Material MaterialRecyclability Recyclability and and Part Part Remanufacture RemanufactureCategories Categories
Category 1 Part is remanufacturable Example: starter, transmission 2 Recyclable infrastructure and technology are clearly defined.
Part is completely recyclable, infrastructure clearly defined and functioning. Example: Body sheet metal.

Technically Feasible, infrastructure not available.

Collection network not defined or organized, technology for material recycling has been established. Example: Plastic interior trim.

Technically feasible, but further process or material development is required.


Technology has not been commercialized. Example: Backlite glass.

Organic material for energy recovery, that cannot be recycled.

Known technology/capacity to produce energy with economic value. Example: Tires, rubber in hoses.

Inorganic material with no known technology for recycling.


Recycling technology not known.

Category 3 is a prediction of materials that are technically feasible to recycle.


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Categories Categoriesfor forEase Easeof ofDisassembly Disassemblyfor for Material Material Separation Separationin ina aComponent Component
1 Can be disassembled easily, manually.
Approximate disassembly time is one minute or less. Example: A pillar trim cover

2 Can be disassembled with effort, manually.


Component may contain compatible coatings or adhesives. Approximate disassembly time is one to three minutes. Example: fan shroud.

3 Disassembled with effort, requires some mechanical separation or shredding to separate component materials and parts.
Component may contain non-compatible coatings or adhesives. The process has been fully proven. Example: seat assembly, windshield glass.

4 Disassembled with effort, requires some mechanical separation or shredding to separate component materials and parts.
Component may contain non-compatible coatings or adhesives. The process is currently under development. Example: instrument panel.

5 Cannot be disassembled.
No know technology for separation. Example: heated backlite glass. Note: Note:It Itis isassumed assumedthat thatthe theassembly assemblyor orpart partbeing being rated has already been removed from the vehicle. rated has already been removed from the vehicle.
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Rules Rulesof ofThumb Thumbfor forRecyclability RecyclabilityRatings Ratings


Component/assembly material 1 Single metal 2 Single thermo-plastic 3 Single thermoset 4 Multiple metals 5 Single or multiple metals with single thermoplastic R.R. 2 3 4, 5 2 3, 4 Reason Technology and recycling infrastructure in place. Technology available, but no infrastructure in place. Some technology under development. Incineration may be possible. Technology and recycling infrastructure in place. Shredding and magnetic separation allow for separation of metals, depending on number and types. Resulting residue consists of a single plastic which may be recyclable. Technology is available or under development to recycle this plastic mix, but no infrastructure exist. At best, technology is under development to recycle/separate this mixture. Incineration may be possible, dependent on composition. At best, some technology is under development to recycle/separate part of this mixture. Incineration may be possible, dependent on composition.

6 Multiple thermo-plastics: All compatible

3, 4

7 Multiple thermo-plastics: Incompatible

4, 5, 6

8 Multiple thermosets

4, 5, 6

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Rules Rulesof of Thumb Thumb for for Separability SeparabilityRatings Ratings


1 Situation Fasteners are made of same material as parts being joined. Fasteners are made of material compatible with material of parts being joined. Fasteners are incompatible with parts being joined, but easily removable. Fasteners are incompatible with parts being joined, but removable by force (e.g. rivets or heatstakes). Fasteners are made of ferrous material and easily removable and parts being joined are made of compatible or same plastic. Fasteners are non removable/permanent/molded in, but made of ferrous material and parts being joined are made of compatible or same plastic. Fasteners are non removable/permanent/molded in, but made of ferrous material and parts being joined are made of incompatible plastics. Fasteners and part materials are incompatible and fasteners are absolutely non-removable (e.g. adhesives). S.R. 1 Reason No disassembly required. All can be recycled as a single part. Preferred situation. No disassembly required. All can be recycled as a single part. Fasteners can be removed manually. Part material can be separated manually. Fasteners can be removed manually. Part material can be separated manually or mechanically if material properties allow. Fasteners can be removed manually or by shredding and magnetic separation. Choice depends on time required. Plastic parts are recycled as a mix. Fasteners can be removed by shredding and magnetic separation. Plastic parts are recycled as a mix.

2 3 4

1 1, 2 3, 4, 5 1, 2, 3

3, 4, 5

4, 5

Part materials are same or compatible, but incompatible with fastener. However, fastener mass is so small that realistically no contamination will occur.

Fasteners can be removed by shredding and magnetic separation. Plastics may be separated through density separation, if number and densities allow. No separation possible and fastener will cause part material contamination if shredded. In limited cases, (chemical) separation technologies are under development. All can be recycled as a single part. Advice from Materials Engineering should be sought, because 1% contamination is already unacceptable in some cases.

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Step Step3 3 Calculating Calculating Percent Percent Recyclability Recyclabilityby byWeight Weight The recyclability for an entire assembly is calculated on a percent recyclability by weight basis. The weights of all components with a recyclability rating of 1-3 and a separation rating of 1-3 are summed. The resulting weight number is then divided by the total weight of all components in the assembly. The subsequent number represents the percentage (by weight) of the assembly that is technically feasible to recycle. The calculation provides a quantitative value, but the additional discussion of the good and bad points of the system and/or components is, in general, much more informative than this value
(Total weight of components with R.R. of 1-3 and S.R. of 1-3) Percent recyclability by weight = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ x 100 (Total weight of all components in assembly)
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Step Step4 4 Identify IdentifyAreas Areasof ofImprovement Improvement In general, any components with recyclability and/or separability ratings of 4 are immediate candidates for improvement, especially if a components recyclability rating is 3 but its separability rating is 4. Furthermore, components with a relatively large weight should be investigated first since they provide the (potential) highest increase in percent recyclability by weight. This step is a precursor to Task 2.c (Identify and Prioritize Limiting Factors) if improvements are needed.

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Product ProductExample Example Motorola MotorolaDisplay/Keypad Display/KeypadMicrophone Microphone

22 ITEM NO. 1 2 3 4 5 18 19 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 10 DESCRIPTION SCREW WASHER (2 reqd) SCREW LABEL LEVER, PTT (part of item 6) ASSEMBLY, Housing (includes item 5) STRAIN RELIEF CLAMP SCREW (2 reqd) CORD, Coil HOUSING, Header WIRE, Receptacle WIRE, Receptacle PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD, PTT CONTACT, Snap SEAL, Dome FRAME MICROPHONE BOOT, Microphone WIRE, Receptacle WIRE, Receptacle PAD ASSEMBLY, Display Cover LABEL, Nameplate O-RING WASHER, Insulator INSULATOR

26

4 7 17

8 9 9 27

20 21

25

14 11 15 16 12 13 24 23

Georgia Institute of Technology Systems Realization Laboratory

VRP VRPDFR DFRAssessment Assessment


Disassembly activity
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Name Disconnect mic. from base Microphone Disassembly Remove screws #1 phillips From No. 2 Washer From No. 2 Washer Remove keypad subassembly From No. 5 Gasket From No. 5 Break H-S Tabs From No. 5 Keypad PCB/LCD From No. 8 Undo metal tabs From No. 8 Remove. Disp. Sub. From No. 10 LCD Cover From No. 10 LCD From No. 10 Conductor From No. 10 LCD Base From No. 8 PCB From No. 5 Keypad From No. 5 LCD Prot. Scrn. From No. 5 Foam From No. 5 Inserts From No. 5 Keypad base 12-pin connector housing Microphone subassembly From 22 Mic. & wires From 22 Microphone boot PTT Contact & wires Screw - mic. cord/bracket Mic. cord bracket Microphone cord Mic. cord boot Spacer Screw - mic./PTT lever mount Microphone/PTT mount bracket Rubber pad Motorola label PTT lever PTT bezel PTT actuator Microphone Hanger Microphone base Quantity 1 2 2 2 1 1 8 1 6 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Type CE/SP/SA CE CE SP SP SUB SP CE SUB CE SUB SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP CE SUB SP SP SUB CE SP SUB SP SP CE SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP Access 4 3 4 4 4 4 1 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 2 1 4 2 3 2 4 1 4 3 2 4 4 4 3 3 2 1 2 2 4 4

Disassemblability
Tool #1 PS Pliers Knife Pry Pliers Pry out Knife Saw pin Pliers Pliers #1 PS Pliers #1 PS Pliers Pliers Pliers Drill Force 4 4 4 4 2 4 1 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 4 1 4 4 3 3 4 3 3 2 2 2 3 4 2 3 3 2 2 4 1 4 Time [sec.] 1 24 1 1 5 1.5 210 2 25 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 5 1 30 1 50 7.5 7 1 5 10 8 25 5 3 10 4 2 5 3 3 1 60 1 Rating [1-5] Material -

Material recyclability
Mass 0 0.000600 0.000010 0.000010 0.000000 0.001000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000750 0.002500 0.000030 0.001200 0.010400 0.006100 0.001000 0.000000 0.001000 0.015000 0.000800 0.000000 0.000940 0.001250 0.001500 0.000200 0.000600 0.089300 0.001300 0.000010 0.000200 0.005000 0.000900 0.000100 0.000800 0.000500 0.001500 0.030223 0.046777 Rating Rating Marked

Comments [1-4] (1-6)


4 2 2 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 4 1 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 3 1 4 4 1 3 2 4 1 3 2 2 2 3 4 2 2 3 3 4 2 4 4 3 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 2 2 3 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 3 2 4 2 3 3 3 2 2 3

[y/n] N N N N N N N Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N Y Y Y Y N Y N Y Y N N N Y N N Y Y Y N Y

1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1

Stainless Steel Plastic PP Plastic PP Mix Rubber Mix Mix Plastic HDPE Mix Mix Aluminum Mix Cu, Au Rubber Plastic HDPE Foam Brass Plastic ABS Plastic HDPE Mix Mix Cu, Al Rubber Mix Cu, Au Steel Stainless Steel Mix Cu, AU, Pl Rubber Plastic PP Steel Plastic ABS Rubber PLastic HDPE Plastic ABS Plastic ABS Rubber Stainless Steel Plastic ABS

0.221500 0.111830 Percent Recyclability by Weight 50.4875619

Georgia Institute of Technology Systems Realization Laboratory

Activity-Based Activity-BasedCosting CostingDismantling DismantlingAssessment Assessment


Cell F415
.034 .02 .01 .00 .00 -9.50 -8.38 -7.25 [$/unit] -6.12 -5.00

Forecast: Dismantling Unit-profitability Frequency Chart 996 Trials Shown


34 25.5 17 8.5 0

Sensitivity Chart Target Forecast: Dismantling Unit-profitability


A13 Volume [$/ft^3] No. 7 Time [sec] -.66 -.53

Microphone Pay-back Price [ -.41 A311 Direct Labor [$/h] Business days per week -.17 .16

Microphone Total Volume [ft^ .14 No. 19 Time [sec] Fuel Consumption intensity [ Super-Duty Impact Wrench Reusables Volume [ft^3] Aluminum [$/kg] No. 44 Keypad RcE -.12 .08 .08 -.08 .07 -.07 -.07 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1

Transportation Information Truck Information Legal Other Departments Information EPA Storage Requirements Fork lift Information

Costing Department
Recycling Revenue Reuse Revenue

Equipment Information Shredder Information

ABC Cost Model with Uncertainty

No. 38 Time [sec]

Assumptions Tools

Measured by Rank Correlation

Dismantling Information

Product Database

Design Department
Recycling & Reuse Efficiencies Action Chart for Each Product

Process Department

In any detailed assessment, uncertainty should be taken into account!


Georgia Institute of Technology Systems Realization Laboratory

Activity-Based Activity-BasedCosting CostingShredding ShreddingAssessment Assessment


ly b fa o r -p t U g in d h S s F :c r 6 1 4 F C l
.02 .02 .01 .0 . -2. -1. -1. -0. 0.

Sensitivity Chart
t r C y c n e q F a u e s ia r T 4 9 1 l9
53

Target Forecast: Shredding Unit-profitability


39.

Microphone Pay-back Price [ -1.00


26. 13. 0

A51 Direct Labor [h/batch] A51 Tooling Time [h/batch] No. 25 Time [sec.]

-.07 .06 .06

Microphone Total Volume [ft^ .06 Business days per week Operation hours per day .05 -.05 .05 .05 -.05 -.05 .05 .05 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1

Shredding cost less than manual dismantling in this case, which is not surprising. Note the sensitivity of the cost with respect to the product pay-back price.

Plastic Shredder Price [$/un Maintenance cost [$/year] A1e21 Direct Labor [h/batch] A612 Direct Labor [h/batch] Concrete [Yard^3] Inspection Fee [$/year]

Measured by Rank Correlation

Georgia Institute of Technology Systems Realization Laboratory

Involving Involving the the Suppliers Suppliers Suppliers need to be involved as well because of outsourcing in modern companies. Big issue: How to get not only the products from the supplier, but also the necessary information?

Georgia Institute of Technology Systems Realization Laboratory

Supplier SupplierRegulated RegulatedSubstance Substanceand and Recyclability Recyclability Data DataCollection Collection and andReporting ReportingSystem System To avoid mistakes and costly errors down the road, a computer-based Supplier Regulated Substance and Recyclability Data Collection and Reporting System is being developed. The idea is that suppliers will answer questions and fill out forms in the software. DaimlerChrysler is using it.

Georgia Institute of Technology Systems Realization Laboratory

Supplier SupplierRegulated RegulatedSubstance Substanceand andRecyclability Recyclability Data Collection and Reporting Data Collection and ReportingSystem System

Entry EntryScreen Screen Flow FlowDiagram Diagram

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Georgia Institute of Technology Systems Realization Laboratory