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Ines A. de Guzman, PhD

The Filipino Value System includes an assemblage of consistent:







The distinct value system of Filipinos is rooted primarily in personal alliance systems such as:

Value System




Social approval, acceptance by a group, and belonging to a group are major concerns.

Two Models of the Filipino Value System Exogenous or the Foreign Model Indigenous or Traditional Model
Legal and formal model Inherited by Filipinos from Western cultures, particularly from the Spaniards and the Americans

Traditional and non-formal model Deeply embedded in the Filipino subconscious

Inherent Key Elements

Optimism about the future Pessimism with regards to present situations and events Concern and care for other people Existence of friendship and friendliness Habit of being hospitable Religious nature Respectfulness to self and others Respect for the female members of society Fear of God Abhorrence of acts of cheating and thievery Having a pro-American outlook

The core values of Filipinos specifically upholds the following:

Solidarity of the family unit, Security of the Philippine economy, Orientation to small-groups, Personalism, Concepts of "loob" or "kalooban" ("whats inside the self", the "inner-self", or the "actual personal feelings of the self"), Existence and maintenance of smooth interpersonal relationships, and Sensing of the feelings or needs of others (known as pakikiramdam).

Gender Specific Values

Expectations in relation to parenthood:

Preference for male and female children - based on the expected roles that each gender would assume once grown up. Both genders are expected to become responsible members of the family and the society. Women are expected to: - help in household work, - become caring and nurturing mothers for their own children, - offer assistance after being married. Filipino men are expected to: - assume the role of becoming the primary source of income and financial support of his family.

Basic Tenets
Core value Kapwa, 'togetherness', is the core construct of Filipino Psychology. Kapwa has two categories, Ibang Tao (other people) and Hindi Ibang Tao (not other people). Ibang Tao ("outsider") Five domains in this construct:
Pakikitungo: civility Pakikisalamuha: act of mixing Pakikilahok: act of joining Pakikibagay: conformity Pakikisama: being united with the group.

Hindi Ibang Tao ("one-of-us") Three domains in this construct:

Pakikipagpalagayang-loob: act of mutual trust Pakikisangkot: act of joining others Pakikipagkaisa: being one with others

Pivotal interpersonal value Pakiramdam: Shared inner perceptions. Filipinos use damdam, or the inner perception of others' emotions, as a basic tool to guide his dealings with other people.

Linking socio-personal value

Kagandahang-Loob: Shared humanity. Refers to being able to help other people in dire need due to a perception of being together as part of one Filipino humanity.

Accommodative surface values Hiya: Loosely translated as 'shame' by most Western psychologists, Hiya is actually 'sense of propriety'. Utang na Loob: Norm of reciprocity. Filipinos are expected by their neighbors to return favors-whether these were asked for or not -when it is needed or wanted. Pakikisama and Pakikipagkapwa: Smooth Interpersonal Relationship, or SIR, as coined by Lynch (1961 and 1973). This attitude is primarily guided by conformity with the majority.

Confrontative surface values Bahala Na: 'fatalistic passiveness', describes the Filipino way of life, in which, he is determined to do his best, hence the term bahala na, which actually came from the phrase bathalan na, meaning 'I will do all my best, let God take care of the rest'. Lakas ng Loob: characterized by being courageous in the midst of problems and uncertainties. Pakikibaka: it means concurrent clashes. It refers to the ability of the Filipino to undertake revolutions and uprisings against a common enemy.

Societal values Karangalan: dignity, this actually refers to what other people see in a person and how they use that information to make a stand or judge about his/her worth.
Puri: the external aspect of dignity. May refer to how other people judge a person of his/her worth. Dangal: the internal aspect of dignity. May refer to how a person judges his own worth.

Katarungan: justice, this actually refers to equity in giving rewards to a person. Kalayaan: Freedom and mobility. May clash with the less important value of pakikisama or pakikibagay (conformity).

Values of Modern Filipinos

PANANALIG FAITH The Madonna and Child epitomize the kind of faith every Filipino carries in the heart. An assurance that the Divine Being watches over every one of us.

KATAPATAN FAITHFULNESS Resembling marriage bonds, faithfulness to husband or wife and faithfulness to country and all ideals for which our republic stands.

PAG-AARUGA NURTURING Every Filipino child grows and learns under the a mentor who instils in the child the sense of love, compassion, heroism, and courage .

KASIPAGAN INDUSTRY The fruits of the earth spring forth only through industry and it is only by working that one will be able to achieve the rebuilding of our country.


Stalwart and firm in idealism and goodwill, the modern Filipino stands by his or her values and ideals.

Definitely Filipino (FB) Internet Materials Google Images Jocano, F. Landa. (1992). Issues and challenges in Filipino value formation. Quezon City: Punlad Research House