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# Chap 6 The Compensation of the linear control systems

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P553

Chap 6 The Compensation of the linear control systems
§6-1 Introduction 6.1.1 definition of compensation 6.1.2 types of compensation §6-2 The basic controller operation analysis 6.2.1 PI D controller ---active compensation 6.2.2 phase-lead controller passive 6.2.3 phase-lag controller compensation controller 6.2.4 phase lag-lead controller §6-3 Cascade compensation method of Root loci §6-4 Cascade compensation method of frequency- Domain §6-5 Feedback compensation

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6.1 Introduction
6.1.1 What is compensation or correction of a control system ?
For example : K G ( s) H ( s) = s(Ts + 1)( s + 1)

make this closed - loop system can be stable

solution According to Routh - Hurwitz criterion, we can get :
K<
But if : G ( s ) H ( s ) =

T +1 1 = 1+ (K > 0 T > 0) T T K

s2 (Ts + 1)

According to Routh - Hurwitz Criterion, this closed - loop system can not be stable only varying K or T .

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6.1 Introduction
If we make : G ( s ) H ( s ) = K (τs + 1) s 2 (Ts + 1) τ >T

This closed-loop system can be stable. We make the system stable by increasing a component. This procedureis called the compensation or correction. Definition of the compensation: increasing a component ,which makes the system’s performance to be improved, other than only varying the system’s parameters, this procedure is called the compensation or correction of the system.

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Compensator: The compensator is an additional component or circuit that is inserted into a control system to compensate for a deficient performance. K Example : G ( s ) H ( s ) = , to increase τs + 1 component, 2 s (Ts + 1)

6.1 Introduction

the system can be stable, τs + 1 is a compensator.
6.1.2 Types of the compensation The transfer function of the compensator is designated as Gc ( s ), and according to the location of Gc ( s ) in the structure of the system, we can get several types : 5

6 .6.1 Introduction (1) Cascade(or series) compensation (2) Feedback compensation (3) Both series and feedback compensation (4) Feed-forward compensation (1) Cascade(or series) compensation Features : simple but the effects to be restricted.

7 .6.1 Introduction (2) Feedback compensation R(s) - - G0 ( s ) GC C(s) R(s) - G10 - G20 GC C(s) Features: complicated but noise limiting. the effects are more than the cascade compensation. (3) Both cascade and feedback compensation R(s) - GC1 - G0 C(s) GC 2 Features: have advantages both of cascade and feedback compensation.

Demonstration: 8 .6.1 Introduction (4) Feed-forward compensation GC R(s) GC F(s) - G10 + G20 C(s) R(s) - G10 + G20 C(s) For input For disturbance(voice) Features: theoretically we can make the error of a system to be zero and no effects to the transient performance of the system.

1 Introduction E ( s ) = R( s ) − C ( s )  G10G20 + GC G20   = 1 − 1 + G G  R( s ) 10 20   1 − GC G20 = R( s ) 1 + G10G20 1 Make : GC = G20 ⇒ E ( s) = 0 R(s) GC - G10 + G20 C(s) For input But no effect to the characteristic equation: 1+ G10G20 = 0 Question: actually the could not be easy implemented especially maybe the G20 is variable. 9 GC = 1 G20 .6.

And the F(s) could not be easy measured. 10 .1 Introduction E F ( s ) = −C F ( s ) G G G + G20 = − C 10 20 R( s ) 1 + G10G20 G20 (GC G10 + 1) =− R( s ) 1 + G10G20 1 Make : GC = − G10 ⇒ EN ( s) = 0 R(s) GC G10 F(s) + - G20 C(s) For disturbance(voice) Also no effect to the characteristic equation: 1+ G10G20 = 0 Question: actually the GC = 1 could not be easy implemented G10 especially maybe the G20 is variable.6.

7: Where: 5 G10 = R(s) E(s) + C(s) G G s 20 10 + 2 G20 = GCR 0.6.5( 0.1. make Fig.5s + 1) G20 Thinking: if r(t) = n(t) = t .7 E(s) to be zero. 11 . Determine GCR and GCN .2 s . Solution : GCN = 1 = 0.1 Introduction example N(s) GCN For the system shown in Fig.1.6.5s + 1 Determine GCR and GCN .6. G10 GCR = 1 = 0. make ess to be zero — as a exercise.

I .differential controller → improving stability...integrating controller → clearing e ss .6.proportional controller → promoting sensitivity. D . Transfer function: 1 Gc (s) = K p (1 + + τ D s) τIs Kp 1 = K p + K I + K Ds → KI = ..2 Operation analysis of the basic compensators 6. 12 .1 Active Compensation PID controller － active “compensator”.2. K D = K pτ D s τI P .

PD controller Assuming : transfer function : Gc ( s ) = K p + K D s GC ( s ) R(s)＋ － ωn2 G( s) = s( s + 2ξω n ) Kp K Ds ＋ ＋ G(s) C(s) The open − loop transfer function of the compensated ωn2 ( K P + K D s) system is : Gc ( s )G ( s ) = s( s + 2ξωn ) It shows that the PD controller is equivalent to adding a KP open − loop zero at : s = − KD 13 .

2) PD controller improve the system’s stability (to increase damping and reduce maximum overshoot).2 Operation analysis of the basic compensators Effects of PD controller: 1) PD controller does not alter the system type. 3) PD controller reduce the rise time and settling time.6. and Mr . 4) PD controller increase BW(Band Width) and improve GM(Kg). － bring in the noise ! 14 .PM(γc).

2 Operation analysis of the basic compensators It shows that the PI controller is equivalent to adding a open − loop KI zero at : s = − and a pole at : s = 0 KP 15 .1 PI controller Transfer function : Gc ( s ) = K p + K I s R(s) ＋ ＋ C(s) K G(s) p ω n2 － ＋ Assuming : G ( s ) = 1 KI s( s + 2ξω n ) GC ( s ) s The open − loop transfer function of the compensated system is : 1 ω n2 ( K P + K I ) 2 ω (K P s + K I ) s n Gc ( s )G ( s ) = = s( s + 2ξω n ) s 2 ( s + 2ξω ) n 6.

beneficial to the noise limiting . PM(γc) and Mr . 2) reduce BW(Band Width) and GM(Kg).2 Operation analysis of the basic compensators Effects of PI controller: 1) Increase the system’s type － clear the steady-state error .6. 16 . not beneficial to the system’s stability.

6.2 Operation analysis of the basic compensators PID controller R(s) Transfer function: Gc (s) = K p + K I Kp KI 1 s GC ( s ) 1 + KDs s - + G(s) C(s) KDs PID controller have advantages both of PI and PD. 17 .

Circuits of PID R2 ur R1 C U0 ( s ) R2 = (1 + R1C1s ) U R ( s) R 1 R2 _ + u0 ur R1 C _ + u0 PI controller 1 U0 ( s ) R2 = (1 + ) U R ( s) R R2Cs ur 1 PD controller R2 C2 R1 C1 _ + u0 U0 ( s ) =? U R ( s) PID controller 18 .

For example: Disk driver control system Determine : K P . K D values. make the system to satisfy the following specifcation : σ % < 5% t s < 250ms for r ( t ) = t 19 .

solution open − loop transfer function : 5000 K p ( s + z ) KD Gc ( s )G1( s )G2 ( s ) = here : z = − .3 detail. s( s + 20)( s + 1000) Kp K D : 0 → +∞ is shown in following figure : one type of design. the root . 20 .loci of the system for How to get ？ Shown in 6. choose K P = K D .

6.lead controller G c (s) = ⋅ 1 + βτ bs 1 + ατ a s α <1.2 Passive compensation controllers Types of passive compensation controller 1 + τs 1) phase .2.lead controller G c (s) = α <1 1 + ατs 1 + τs 2) phase . β >1 τb >τa 21 .lag controller G c (s) = β >1 1 + βτs 1 + τ bs 1 + τ a s 3) phase lag .

6.2 Passive compensation controllers 1) Phase .2.lead controller 1 + τs 1 s + z Transfer function : Gc ( s ) = = 1 + α τs α s + p α <1 1 z= τ 1 p= ατ Zero and pole 22 .

Compensation ideal: make ωm to be ωc ! 23 .Frequency response 1 + jτω Gc ( jω) = 1 + jατω Maxmum value of the phase. and the frequency ω m at which φm occurs 1 τ α ∠Gc( jω ) = φ ( jω ) ω m = zp = = tan −1 τω − tan −1 ατω from which we get :  φm = sin    1+ α  1 − sinφm α= 1 + sinφm −1  1 − α Bode plot z zp p Effects are similar to PD. φm .

Circuit of the phase-lead controller R2 Gc (s) = R1 + R2 R1Cs + 1 = α τs + 1 R2 ατs + 1 R1Cs + 1 R1 + R 2 τ = R1C R2 α= R1 + R2 24 .

2.2 Passive compensation controllers 2) Phase .6.lag controller τs + 1 1 s+z Transfer function : Gc ( s ) = = ⋅ βτs + 1 β s + p β >1 1 z= τ 1 p= βτ Zero and pole 25 .

Compensation ideal: Make 1/τto be in the lower frequency-band and far from ωc ! β 1 β 2τ Bode plot 26 .Frequency response 1 + jωτ Gc ( jω) = 1 + jωβτ β 1 β 2τ Effects are similar to PI.

Circuit of the Phase-lag controller Vo ( s ) 1 + τs Gc ( s ) = = Vin ( s ) 1 + βτs τ = R2C β= R1 + R2 R2 27 .

lead controller 1+ τa s 1+ τbs transfer function : Gc ( s ) = ⋅ 1 + ατ a s 1 + βτ b s p1 = − 1 βτ b z1 = − 1 τb p2 z 2 z1 p1 α <1 β >1 jω σ 1 p2 = − ατ a 1 z2 = − τa Zero and pole 28 .2.2 Passive compensation controllers 2) Phase lag .6.

29 − 20dB/dec ϕ (ω ) 900 ω − 900 Bode plot .L(ω ) / dB 1 βτ b 1 τb 1 τa 1 ατ a 20dB/dec Frequency response 1 + jτ aω 1 + jτ bω Gc ( jω) = ⋅ 1 + jατ aω 1 + jβτ bω ω 0 α <1 β >1 Effects are similar to PID. Compensation ideal: First make the phase-lag compensation － to satisfy ess and compensate a part of γc . second make the phase-lead compensation － to satisfy the transitional requirements.

Circuit of the Phase lag-lead controller α <1 30 .

3 Comparing active compensation controllers and passive compensation controllers PD : K p (1 + τ D s ) K p (1 + PI : = 1 τIs K p (τ I s + 1) ) τs + 1 → phase − lead : ατs + 1 τs + 1 → phase − lag : βτs + 1 + τ D s) τIs τIs K p (τ Iτ D s 2 + τ I s + 1) K p (1 + 1 PID : = → phase lag − lead : τIs ( τ a s + 1)( τ b s + 1) (ατ a s + 1)( τ b s/α + 1) 31 .2 Operation analysis of the basic compensators 6.2.6.

1 32 . phase-lead compensation Fig.6.3.3.1 Analysis: unstable.loop transfer function : GH ( s ) = 2 s Performance specifications of the system are : K1 setting time(2% criterion) t s ≤ 4s. overshoot σ % ≤ 25% determine the compensation for the system.6. solution The root loci of the system shown in Fig.1 Phase-lead compensation (P569) Example 6.3.6.1: open .3.3 Cascade compensation by Root loci method 6.

2 = − 1 ± j 2 Fig.4(σ % ≤ 25.6.3 Cascade compensation by Root loci method According to t s and σ % .4%) 4 ts = = 4 → ξω n = 1 ξω n Choose desired dominant roots : S d 1.6.3. 2 = −1 ± j 2 (ξ ≈ 0. 2 = −ξωn ± jωn 1 − ξ 2 − (ξ → σ p . we can choose the desired dominant roots as : Sd1.2 33 . ξωn → t s ) ξπ 1−ξ 2 In terms of : σ % = e × 100% → ξ ≥ 0.44) Sd1.

3.6. θ ϕc − pc − zc Fig.3 Cascade compensation by Root loci method 1 + τs 1 s + zc 1 1 Applying : Gc ( s ) = = ⋅ ⇐ zc = .3 34 .6.loci we have : ∠[ Gc ⋅ GH ( s )] s = s d1 = 1800 ⇒ ∠Gc ( sd1 ) = ϕ c = 1800 − ∠GH ( sd1 ) (1) Maximum α method 1 γ = (π − θ − ϕ c ) 2 (2) Method based on the open-loop gain ϕ c = ∠( sd + zc ) − ∠( sd + pc ) = 1800 + 2(1800 − tg −1 2) ≈ 530 There are two approaches to determine sd 1 γ zc and pc . pc = 1 + ατs α s + pc τ ατ According to the phase criterion of root .

3.6.2 0 sin(180 − ϕ c − γ − θ ) sd1 sin(ϕ c + γ ) sd 1 γ θ ϕc − pc − zc Fig.19 0 sin(180 − γ − θ ) sd1 pc = ⇒ pc ≈ 4.3 Cascade compensation by Root loci method  csc ϕ c γ = ctg  − ctgϕ c   GH ( s ) d 1   −1   For this example we choose the Maximum α method: θ = tg −1 2 ≈ 630 1 γ = (1800 − 530 − 630 ) = 320 2 In terms of the sine’s law: sin γ zc = ⇒ zc ≈ 1.6.3 35 .

ξωn ← t s ) (2) plot the root locus of the system and analyze what compensation device should be applied.19 Fig.238s + 1 − 4. Root locus of the compensted system 36 .84 s + 1 0.4 (1) Determine the dominant roots based on the performance specifications of the system: Sd1.6.6.4 Steps of the cascade phase-lead Compensation: − 1. 2 = −ξωn ± jω n 1 − ξ 2 (ξ ← σ p .3.6.3.2 sd1 The root locus of the compensated system is shown in Fig.3 Cascade compensation by Root loci method So we have : Gc ( s ) = 0.

= 0 0 sin(180 − γ − θ ) sd1 sin(180 − ϕ c − γ − θ ) sd1 (6) plot the root locus of the compensated system and make validity check.3 Cascade compensation by Root loci method (3) Determine the angle φc to be compensated: ϕ c = ∠Gc ( sd ) = 1800 − ∠GH 0 ( sd ) + ε (4) calculate θ andγ: 1 γ = (π − θ − ϕc ) or 2 2 ω 1 − ξ θ = tg −1 n ξωn γ = ctg −1    csc ϕc − ctgϕc   GH ( s )  d1   (5 calculate zc and pc In terms of the sine’s law : ) sin γ zc sin(ϕ c + γ ) pc = . 37 .6.

707(for the dominant poles) Speed error constant : K v = 20 Solution: The root locus of the system is shown in Fig.2: The open .6.3.5 450 38 . -10 Fig.3.3.loop transfer function of a system : K GH(s) = s(s + 10 )2 Specifications for the system are : Damping ratio ξ = 0.2 Phase-lag compensation using the root locus (P577) Example 6.3.6.6.5.

loop poles lie on the jω . K v = 20 and ξ = 0.707 can not be satisfied synchronously. When ξ = 0.2 Phase-lag compensation using the root locus (P577) The detail of the root-loci is shown in Fig 6.6. Analysis : Kv = 20 = K 2 ⇒ K = 2000. the poles : sd1.3. Fig 6.3. and a phase lag compensation should be used.6 39 .707. 10 but K = 2000.2 = .9 ± j 2 .2 .9 and the gain at the poles : K = 236.3.6. two closed .axis at ± j10.

3.1 ⇒ G c (s) = s + 0.0118 8. and ∠( sd + zc ) − ∠( sd + pc ) ≤ 50 0.2 Phase-lag compensation using the root locus (P577) The phase .5 pc 236 Kv uncomp β > 1.5 s + 0 .0118 Fig 6.6.lag compensator : 1 s + zc 1 + τs Gc ( s ) = ⋅ = β s + pc 1 + βτs Make the ratio of zc and pc : zc K vdesire 2000 β= = = = 8.3.6 40 .1 and pc = ≈ 0.1 We choose : zc = 0.

0118 ) Validate…… Steps of the cascade phase-lag Compensation: (1) Determine the dominant roots based on the performance specifications of the system: Sd1. If the phase-lag Compensation be applied: 41 .6.3.2 Phase-lag compensation using the root locus (P577) The open . 2 = −ξωn ± jω n 1 − ξ 2 (ξ ← σ p .1 ) GH(s)Gc (s) = s(s + 10 )2(s + 0 . ξωn ← t s ) (2) plot the root locus of the system and analyze what compensation device should be applied.loop transfer function compensated : K(s + 0 .

6.3.3 Phase lag-lead compensation by the root locus method Basic ideal: 42 . β s + pc 1 + βτs zc K vdesire (3) Make the ratio of zc and pc : β = = pc K vuncomp (4) Rationally choose zc : to make : pc = zc /β and ∠( sd + zc ) − ∠( sd + pc ) ≤ 50 to be satisfied. (5) plot the root locus of the compensated system and make validity check.lag compensator : Gc ( s ) = ⋅ = β > 1.3.2 Phase-lag compensation using the root locus (P577) 1 s + zc 1 + τs The phase . 6.

3.3 Phase lag-lead compensation by the root locus method First: make the phase-lead compensation － to satisfy the transitional requirements.1 and example 6. Exercise: Make compensation using PD and PI for example 6.3. Second: make the phase-lag compensation － to satisfy ess requirements.6.3.2 43 .

4 Cascade compensation by frequency response method 6. Active compensation : GC (s) = K p( 1 + τ D s) K p : can be get from the desire e ss = 1 K0K p s = jωc τ D : can be get from the desire γ C = 1800 − ∠[ GH 0 ( s )GC ( s )] ( K 0GH 0(s)GC (s) s = jω = 1 ) c 44 . Ideal : make ω m to be ω c .4. maxmum phase .Lead angle can be compensated. 1.6.1 Phase-Lead Compensation using Bode diagram Assume : open loop transfer function uncompensa ted system is K 0GH 0 ( s ).

60dB/dec.γ co + ε ← ε : 5o ~ 15o 6. 3) Get φm = γ cd . ε : compensated angle because of the increasing of ω c due to the cascade GC (s) to be made to the K 0GH 0(s). ε ≈ 5o ~ 10o . .1 + τs (α < 1) 1 + ατs 1) Plot the Bode diagram of the uncompensated system according to the open .4 Cascade compensation by frequency response method γ cd : desired γ c . ε ≈ 5o .loop transfer function K 0GH 0(jω) and the desired e ss . Passive compensation : GC (s) = 2) Measure the ω c and γ co from the Bode diagram.40dB/dec. ε ≈ 10o ~ 15o . 45 . 2. . If the slope of L0(ω) : −20dB / dec at ω c .

γ C etc.6.4 Cascade compensation by frequency response method 4) from φm = sin −1 1 −α 1+α get α = 1 − sinφm 1 + sinφm 5) get τ from the formula : here ω m can be get from : 1 = ωm ατ 20 lg K 0GH 0(jw) ω=ω = 10 lg α m 6) plot the Bode diagram of the K 0GH 0(s) ⋅ Gc (s) examining the ωC . 46 .

4.1( r ( t ) = 1 2 t ) 2 20 lg Gc solution: K1 ≥ 10( e ss ≤ 0.4.6. e ss ≤ 0.6. － 40dB/dec 10 γ c = 00 . ω c = 10 = 3.loop transfer function GH(s) = K1 S 2 .1 1 + τs We must use the phase . ω c ≥ 10.16 Fig.lead compensation : Gc (s) = 1 + ατs  and add 45 angle at ωc = 10 47 .1.6.1) The Bode diagram is shown in Fig.4 Cascade compensation by frequency response method Example: Open . specifications for the system are : γ c ≥ 450 .

48 .24 s and K c = 1.4.17 1 + sin ϕ m ϕ =45o m － 40dB/dec 20 lg Gc 1 Fig.7) Exercise: 1.24 τ α but 20 log GH ( jω ) ω =10 = −20dB ≠ 20 log α α =0. 2.4dB 10 So we make Gc = K c 1 + 0.6.6.7 1 + 0.4 ⇒ K c = 1.4 Cascade compensation by frequency response method φm = γ cd − γ c 0 + ε = 45o − 0o + 0o = 45o (ϕ (ω ) = ∠GH ( jω ) = −180o ) 1 − sin ϕ m α= ⇒ α ≈ 0. Make compensation using PD for this example. Make validity check for this example.17 = −15.041s ( 20 lg K c = 20 − 15.1 ωm = ωc = = 10 ⇒ τ ≈ 0.

6.2 : 1 + τs We can use the phase .2 49 .lag compensation : Gc (s) = .32 － 180 The Bode diagram of the uncompensa ted system is shown in Fig. β >1 1 + βτs Fig. － 900 0 － 20dB/dec 6.4.2 Phase-Lag Compensation using Bode diagram Example: The uncompensated transfer function : K Kv GH(jω) = = s( s + 2) s(0 .32 － 20lgβ 2 γ c = 200 － 40dB/dec solution: γ c ≈ 20 at ω c ≈ 6.4. Dtermine the compensator.6.5s + 1 ) Specifications for the system are : Phase margin γ c = 45 .4.6. and K v = 20.

15 τ 10 － 180 0 (Consider Allowing 5 error at ω c for the phase .2 Phase-Lag Compensation using Bode diagram We locate the frequency ω c = 1.7 s Validate…… 50 .32 － 20lgβ 2 γ c = 200 Fig. The required attenuation at ω c is 20dB ⇒ 20dB = 20logβ ⇒ β = 10 － 900 － 20dB/dec 6.4.5 where φ(ω ) = −130o ⇒ γ c = 50o At ω c = 1.4.67 ⇒ G ( s ) = 1 + 6. 20 lg GH ( jω ) ω =1.6.2 － 40dB/dec Make : 1 ωc = = 0.67 s 1 + 66.5 ≈ 20dB .5.lag compensator) ⇒ τ ≈ 6.6.

6. Make validity check for this example.2 Phase-Lag Compensation using Bode diagram Steps of the phase-lag compensation: 1) Plot the Bode diagram of the uncompensa ted system according to the open . τ k 5) Plot the Bode diagram of the compensated system to validate the specifications γ c and ω c etc. 51 . Make phase-lag compensation for γc=50o and Kv=20. 2) Find ω c which satisfy the γ c requirement. 2.4. Exercise: 1.loop transfer function K 0GH 0(jω) and the desired e ss . 3) Get β from : 20logβ = 20 log GH ( jω ) ω =ω 4) Make c 1 ωc = ( k : 5～10) to get τ .

3. Second: make the phase-lead compensation － to satisfy the requirementsγc and ωc etc.6.4.6.3 Phase-Lag-lead Compensation using Bode diagram First: make the phase-lag compensation － to satisfy ess and compensate a part of γc .6. If the open .4. 6.4.loop transfer function of the uncompensated system is : 1 － 20dB/dec 20 GH(s) = 100 s( s + 1) 10 determine the series compensation device.4. Fig.3 － 40dB/dec 40 solution 52 .4 Compensation according to the desired frequency response Example The desired frequency response is shown in Fig.

4.6.4.6.01s + 1) 1 GH ( s ) = s( s + 1) Gc ( s ) = GH desire ( s ) 10 = s(0.3 － 40dB/dec 53 .4 Compensation according to the desired frequency response In terms of the desired frequency response we have: 10 GH desire ( s ) = Gc ( s )GH ( s ) = s(0.01s + 1) 40 Fig.01s + 1) GH ( s ) 1 s( s + 1) － 20dB/dec 20 10 100 ( s + 1) = 10 ⋅ (0.

4.4 (minimum phase system) and 1 GH(s) = s( s + 1) Determine the cascade compensation device and compare the performance between the compensated system and the uncompensa ted system.6.loop frequency response of a system is shown in Fig.4 54 . 6.Exercise: The desired open . － 40dB/dec 40 － 20dB/dec 20 1 10 － 40dB/dec 40 100 Fig.4.

1 － G20 GC C (s ) 6.5.5.2 The basic Feedback compensators Gc ( s ) = α → proportional(position) feedback compensation.5.1 The configuration of the Feedback compensation R(s) － － G’0(s) G0 ( s ) C(s) G’20(s) R(s) － G10 GC Fig. 55 . Gc ( s ) = αs 2 [⋅1 (τs + 1)] → 2th − differential(acceleration) feedback compensation. Gc ( s ) = αs[1 (τs + 1)] → differential(speed) feedback compensation. 6.6.5 Feedback compensation 6.

6.5. Impair(weaken) the influences of the disturbance to the encircled elements. make the performance of the encircled elements to be desired . 3. K 20 = K 20 2. 56 .3 Function of the feedback: 1. Gc ( s ) = α ⇒ G20 ( s) = = ' 20 Ts + 1 Ts + 1 + K 20α T s + 1 T ' T' = ↓ . ' K K K ' 20 For example G20 ( s ) = 20 . Decrease the time constant of the encircled elements → Quicken the response of the encircled elements － may be. but also K 20 = K 20 /(1 + K 20α ) ↓ 1 + K 20α K K 20 ' But if Gc ( s ) = αs ⇒ G20 ( s) = = ' 20 Ts + 1 + K 20α s T s + 1 T ' = (T + K 20α ) ↑ .

5.5.1(10 s + 1) = G20 － 40dB/dec 40 20 s 2 (0. the desired － － GC G’20(jω) shown in Fig.9 s 2 = 0 . of the encircled elements in terms of the system’s analysis.5.4 The design procedure of the feedback compensator 1.1s + 1) 1 + G20Gc ' G20 G20 － 20dB/dec 20 10 1 Gc = ( G20 ' G20 − 1) G20 = ' G20 − G20 9 .5.3 － 40dB/dec 40 57 . such as the desired Bode diagram. Fig.2 solution G ' ( s ) = 0. 6. Choose the appropriate feedback compensators to G’ get (s) the 20 desired characteristics. 6.5.3.1 s + 1 0. 6. determine the Gc.6.1 Fig. Design the desired characteristics. C(s) Example For the system shown R(s) G20 G10 in Fig. 6.2. 2. G20=10/s2.

58 .