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Introduction to Control Systems

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GEE 514 Solar Energy Institute, Dr.Mutlu BOZTEPE


Course Objectives

To provide a general understanding of the characteristics of dynamic systems and feedback control. To teach classical methods for analysing control system accuracy, stability and dynamic performance. To teach classical control system design methods.

on/off control Design examples . Laplace transforms. Transfer functions. System Responses Closed loop control systems Classical design in the s-domain Classical design in the frequency domain Digital control systems Nonlineer control systems.Course Contents          Introduction to control systems Modelling of the physical systems Time domain analysis.

Burns Butterworth-Heineman Paperback.Course Book Advanced Control Engineering Roland publication date: OCT-2001 ISBN-13: 978-0-7506-5100-4 ISBN-10: 0-7506-5100-8 http://www. 464 pages.cws_home/677158/description#description .elsevier.

Introduction to Control Systems .

The interaction is defined in terms of variables.Control System Concepts    A system is a collection of components which are co-ordinated together to perform a function. Systems interact with their environment across a separating boundary. system inputs  system outputs  .

Systems Disturbance Inputs System Outputs Subsystem Engineering systems Biological systems Information systems Control Inputs En vi ro nm en t System .

The system’s operation is also affected in an uncontrolled manner through the disturbance input .System Variables     The system’s boundary depends upon the defined objective function of the system. The system’s operation is manipulated through the control input variables. The system’s function is expressed in terms of measured output variables.

power steering system. obstacles. Possible subsystems: the car alone.Car and Driver Example      Objective function: to control the direction and speed of the car. Outputs: actual direction and speed of the car Control inputs: road markings and speed signs Disturbances: road surface and grade. braking . wind.

Control objective: to point the antenna in a desired reference direction. Disturbances: wind. . snow. rain. Control inputs: drive motor voltages. Outputs: the elevation and azimuth of the antenna.Antenna Positioning Control System      Original system: the antenna with electric motor drive systems.

input volts + _ Diff. amp volts Power amp power torque Motor Antenna Angular position Error volts Feedback Path Angle sensor Information Variables Physical Variables .Antenna Control System Functional Block Diagram Wind force Antenna System Ref.

Control System Components System or process (to be controlled)  Actuators (converts the control signal to  a power signal)  Sensors (provides measurement of the system output)  Reference input (represents the desired output)  Error detection (forms the control error)  Controller (operates on the control error to form the control signal. sometimes called .

Feedback System Characteristics  Consider the following speed control system Open loop system ωr + _ Disturbance torque Td + u Amp Motor Tm + Load ωo Reference speed Ka Km Kl Speed sensor Feedback Path Ks .

Problems:  nonlinear or time varying gains  unknown and varying disturbances .Open Loop System Characteristics Open loop system u Amp Motor Disturbance torque Td + Tm + Load ωo Ka Km Kl ω o = K l (Tm + Td ) = K a K m K l u + K lTd The accuracy of the open loop system depends upon the calibration of the gains and prior knowledge of the disturbance (choose the control u to give the desired ωo ).

Closed Loop Characteristics Now consider the case with feedback Disturbance torque Open loop system ωr Reference speed + _ Td + + u Amp Motor Tm Load ωo Ka Km Kl Speed sensor Feedback Path Ks ω o = K l (Tm + Td ) = K a K m K l (ω r − K sω o ) + K lTd or Ka Km Kl Kl ω o= ωr + Td 1 + Ka Km Kl K s 1 + Ka Km Kl K s .

1 1 ω o≈ ω r + Td Ks Ka Km K s rad/s volts ≈0 Ks is the sensor gain in units of volts per rad/s. The input/output relationship is not very sensitive to disturbances or changes in the . 1 + K a K m Kl K s ≈ K a K m Kl K s then.Closed Loop Characteristics If Ka is very large such that.

then the error is small. Ka Km Kl Ks is large. .Closed Loop Characteristics The control error is e = (ω r − K sω o )  Ka Km Kl K s  Kl K s = 1 − 1 + K K K K  ω r − 1 + K K K K Td a m l s  a m l s  1 Kl K s = ωr − Td 1 + Ka Km Kl K s 1 + Ka Km Kl K s System Error Again. if the loop gain.

Note: Gain Definitions forward gain: feedback gain: loop gain: closed loop gain: Ka Km Kl Ks Ka Km Kl Ks forward gain 1 + loop gain .

ωo will not respond instantaneously due to the inertial characteristics of the motor and load. ωr .System Dynamics  Consider a sudden change in the speed reference. The output speed. i. The motor and load need to be represented by dynamic equations rather than simple gains.    . The output response will generally lag the input and may be oscillatory. their dynamic characteristics.e.

5 2 Ka = 20 Step Response.6 0.1 0 -0.5 0.5 0.0 .System Dynamics Step Responses Ka = 2 Step Response. Ka=2 1 0.9 0. Ka=20 ωr ωo 1.5 1 ωr ωo Tm Tm 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Assume Ks = 1.3 0.4 0.2 0.7 0.8 0.

Cost of control 6. 3. 2. Robustness (insensitivity to parameter variation) 5.Control System Design Objectives  Primary Objectives: 1. Dynamic stability Accuracy Speed of response  Addition Considerations: 4. System reliability .

 define the input. Combine the subsystems to form a model for the whole system. Identify the system boundaries. . output and disturbance variables   Determine a mathematical model for the components and subsystems.Control System Design Steps   Define the control system objectives.

. Test the control design on a computer simulation of the system. to meet the design objectives. Implement and test the design on the actual process or plant.Control System Design Steps    Apply analysis and design techniques to determine the control system structure and parameter values of the control components.

Control System Design Steps .

complex On/Off control mode: Thermostati c control. low accuracy  .Room Temperature Control System  Examples of Control Systems Proportion al mode: Better accuracy. simple.

Aircraft Elevator Control System  Examples of Control Systems Hydraulic servomechani sms have a good power/weight ratio. and are ideal for applications that require large forces to be produced by small and light devices. .

is to form an inner. which produces an analog signal proportional to velocity. or stabilize the response of the system. Examples of Control Systems . or minor control loop in order to dampen.Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) Machine  The purpose of this latter device.

Ship Autopilot Control System  Examples of Control Systems  Actual heading is measured by a gyro-compass (or magnetic compass). compared with desired value. Error are send to autopilot (Coursekeeping system) Actual rudder angle is sensed. and autopilot controls the ship course by .