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Lecture 01 --Introduction

1.1 Brief History 1.2 Steps to study a control system 1.3 System classification 1.4 System response

NUU meiling CHEN

Modern control systems

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Brief history of automatic control (I)
• • • • • • • • • • • 1868 1877 1892 1895 1932 1945 1947 1948 1949 1955 1956 First article of control ‘on governor’s’ –by Maxwell Routh stability criterion Liapunov stability condition Hurwitz stability condition Nyquist Bode Nichols Root locus Wiener optimal control research Kalman filter and controlbility observability analysis Artificial Intelligence
Modern control systems 2

NUU meiling CHEN

Brief history of automatic control (II) • • • • 1957 Bellman optimal and adaptive control 1962 Pontryagin optimal control 1965 Fuzzy set 1972 Vidyasagar multi-variable optimal control and Robust control • 1981 Doyle Robust control theory • 1990 Neuro-Fuzzy NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 3 .

Three eras of control • Classical control : 1950 before – Transfer function based methods • Time-domain design & analysis • Frequency-domain design & analysis • Modern control : 1950~1960 – State-space-based methods • Optimal control • Adaptive control • Post modern control : 1980 after – H∞ control – Robust control (uncertain system) NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 4 .

Control system analysis and design • Step1: Modeling – By physical laws – By identification methods • Step2: Analysis – Stability. • Step6: Implement NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 5 . controllability and observability • Step3: Control law design – Classical. modern and post-modern control • Step4: Analysis • Step5: Simulation – Matlab. Fortran. simulink etc….

Signals & systems Output signals Time system Input signals NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 6 .

Signal Classification • Continuous signal • Discrete signal NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 7 .

System classification • Finite-dimensional system (lumped-parameters system described by differential equations) – Linear systems and nonlinear systems – Continuous time and discrete time systems – Time-invariant and time varying systems • Infinite-dimensional system (distributed parameters system described by partial differential equations) – – – – Power transmission line Antennas Heat conduction Optical fiber etc…. Modern control systems 8 NUU meiling CHEN .

b etc • Heartbeat dynamic • Eye movement • Commercial aircraft NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 9 .m.Some examples of linear system • Electrical circuits with constant values of circuit passive elements • Linear OPA circuits • Mechanical system with constant values of k.

Linear system A system is said to be linear in terms of the system input x(t) and the system output y(t) if it satisfies the following two properties of superposition and homogeneity. Superposition : x1 (t ) x1 (t ) + x2 (t ) Homogeneity : y1 (t ) x2 (t ) y1 (t ) + y2 (t ) y2 (t ) x1 (t ) NUU meiling CHEN y1 (t ) ax1 (t ) ay1 (t ) 10 Modern control systems .

Example x(t ) y (t ) = x(t ) x(t − 1) y (t ) let let x(t ) = x1 (t ) x(t ) = ax1 (t ) y1 (t ) = x1 (t ) x1 (t − 1) y (t ) = ax1 (t )ax1 (t − 1) = a 2 x1 (t ) x1 (t − 1) = a 2 y1 (t ) y (t ) ≠ ay1 (t ) Non linear system NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 11 .

example The system is governed by a linear ordinary differential equation (ODE) y′′(t ) + 2 y′(t ) + y (t ) = x′(t ) + 3x(t ) x(t ) Linear time invariant system y (t ) ′′(t ) + 2 y1 ′ (t ) + y1 (t ) = x1 ′ (t ) + 3 x1 (t ) y1 ′′(t ) + 2 y2 ′ (t ) + y2 (t ) = x2 ′ (t ) + 3 x2 (t ) y2 ′ (t ) + bx′ [ax1 (t ) + bx2 (t )]′ + 3[ax1 (t ) + bx2 (t )] = ax1 2 (t ) + a 3 x1 (t ) + b3 x2 (t ) ′ (t ) + 3 x1 (t )] + b[ x2 ′ (t ) + 3 x2 (t )] = a[ x1 ′′(t ) + 2 y1 ′ (t ) + y1 (t )] + b[ y2 ′′(t ) + 2 y′ = a[ y1 2 (t ) + y 2 (t )] = [ay1 (t ) + by2 (t )]′′ + 2[ay1 (t ) + by2 (t )]′ + [ay1 (t ) + by2 (t )] linearity NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 12 .

Examples : Circuit system NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 13 .

Examples Discrete system Time delay u[k ] u[k + 1] + + y[k ] A NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 14 .

Properties of linear system : (1) (2) NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 15 .

Time invariance A system is said to be time invariant if a time delay or time advance of the input signal leads to an identical time shift in the output signal. x(t ) Time invariant system y (t ) x(t − t0 ) y (t − t0 ) t0 NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems t0 16 .

18 x(t ) x(t ) y (t ) = R (t ) y (t ) x1 (t ) y1 (t ) = R (t ) x2 (t ) = x1 (t − t0 ) x2 (t ) x1 (t − t0 ) ⇒ y2 (t ) = = R (t ) R (t ) x1 (t − t0 ) but y1 (t ) = R (t − t0 ) y1 (t − t0 ) ≠ y2 (t ). for t0 ≠ 0 Time varying system NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 17 .Example 1.

di (t ) dL vi (t ) = L +i + Ri (t ) dt dt di (t ) vi (t ) = L0 (1 + cos ωt ) − (ωL0 sin ωt )i (t ) + Ri (t ) dt di (t ) vi (t ) = L0 (1 + cos ωt ) + ( R − ωL0 sin ωt )i (t ) dt NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 18 .

Order-N Ordinary Differential equation 2. State equation (Finite order-1 differential equations) ) Discrete-time LTI system 1. Transfer function (Z transform) 3.LTI System representations Continuous-time LTI system 1. Ordinary Difference equation 2. State equation (Finite order-1 difference equations) NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 19 . Transfer function (Laplace transform) 3.

Continuous-time LTI system d 2 y (t ) dy (t ) LC + RC + y (t ) = u (t ) 2 dt dt Order-2 ordinary differential equation constants LCs 2Y ( s ) + RCsY ( s ) + Y ( s ) = U ( s ) Linear system  initial rest Y (s) 1 = Transfer function 2 U ( s ) LCs + RCs + 1 1 LCs 2 + RCs + 1 U (s) Y ( s) NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 20 .

let x1 (t ) = y (t ) dy (t ) x2 (t ) = dt  1 (t ) = x2 (t ) x R 1  2 (t ) = − x2 (t ) − x x1 (t ) + u (t ) L LC  1 (t )   0 x = 1 x    2 (t ) − LC 1   x1 (t )  0 +  u (t )  R  − L   x2 (t ) 1 u (t )  (t ) x ∫ A x(t ) NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 21 .

The point of view of control engineer: Zero-input response y zi (t ) Transient response NUU meiling CHEN : Zero-state response y zs (t ) Steady state response Modern control systems 22 .System response: Output signals due to inputs and ICs. The point of view of Mathematic: Homogenous solution y h (t ) : 2. 1. The point of view of Engineer: Natural response y n (t ) : Forced response y f (t ) Particular solution y p (t ) 3.

E d 2 y (t ) dy (t ) − 2t + 4 + 3 y ( t ) = e . 2 dt dt y (0) = 1. t ≥ 0. dy (0) =1 dt (1) Particular solution: [ y p (t )] = u (t ) d 2 y p (t ) dt 2 +4 dy p (t ) dt + 3 y p (t ) = e − 2t let then y p (t ) = αe −2t y ' p (t ) = −2αe −2t ′ (t ) = 4αe −2t y′p 4αe −2t + 4(−2)αe −2t + 3αe −2t = e −2t ⇒ α = −1 we have NUU meiling CHEN y p (t ) = −e −2t 23 Modern control systems .Example: solve the following O.D.

(2) Homogenous solution: [ yh (t )] = 0 ′′ (t ) + 4 yh ′ (t ) + 3 yh (t ) = 0 yh yh (t ) = Ae −t + Be −3t y (t ) = y p (t ) + yh (t ) have to satisfy I. dy (0) =1 dt 5 − t 1 − 3t yh (t ) = e − e 2 2 NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 24 . y (0) = 1⇒ dy (0) = 1⇒ dt y h ( 0) + y p ( 0) = 1 ′ y′ h ( 0) + y p ( 0) = 1 y ( 0) = 1 .C.

y′ zi (0) = 1 y zi (t ) = K 1e −t + K 2 e −3t . t≥0 y zi (0) = 1.(3) zero-input response: consider the original differential equation with no input. ′ ′ y′ zi (t ) + 4 y zi (t ) + 3 y zi (t ) = 0. t ≥ 0 y zi (0) = K 1 + K 2 y′ zi (0) = − K 1 − 3K 2 K1 = 2 K 2 = −1 y zi (t ) = 2e −t − e −3t . t ≥ 0 zero-input response NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 25 .

C.(4) zero-state response: consider the original differential equation but set all I. zs zs zs t≥0 y zi (0) = 0 . y′ zi (0) = 0 y zs (t ) = C1e −t + C 2 e −3t − e −2t y zs (0) = C1 + C 2 − 1 = 0 y′ zs (0) = −C1 − 3C 2 + 2 = 0 1 2 1 C2 = 2 C1 = 1 − t 1 − 3t y zs (t ) = e + e − e − 2t 2 2 zero-state response NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 26 .=0. −2 t ′ ′ y′ ( t ) + 4 y ( t ) + 3 y ( t ) = e .

t ≥ 0.(5) Laplace Method: d 2 y (t ) dy (t ) − 2t + 4 + 3 y ( t ) = e . 2 dt dt 2 y (0) = 1. dy (0) =1 dt 1 s Y ( s ) − sy (0) − y ′(0) + 4 sY ( s ) − 4 y (0) + 3Y ( s ) = s+2 1 1 5 s+5+ − −1 s + 2 2 Y ( s) = 2 = + + 2 s + 3 s + 2 s +1 s + 4s + 3 − 1 − 3t 5 −t −2t y (t ) =  [Y ( s )] = e −e + e 2 2 −1 NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 27 .

Complex response Zero state response y zs (t ) = 1 − t 1 − 3t e + e − e − 2t 2 2 y (t ) = − 1 − 3t 5 e − e − 2 t + e −t 2 2 Zero input response y zi (t ) = 2e −t − e −3t . t ≥ 0 Forced response (Particular solution) y p (t ) = −e −2t Natural response (Homogeneous solution) yh (t ) = 5 − t 1 − 3t e − e 2 2 Steady state response Transient response − 1 − 3t 5 −t −2t y (t ) = e −e + e 2 2 NUU meiling CHEN Modern control systems 28 .