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Harnessing the economic and performance benefits of Nb-high strength structural steels in India

June 2013
Dr Jitendra Patel Eng.D, C.Eng IMechE, AWeldI, MBA
Director – International Metallurgy Ltd (UK) Consultant – CBMM Technology Suisse SA (Switzerland)

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Worldwide high rise design

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India’s skyline is changing – fast !

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Mumbai (Imperial) Towers INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .

Example: Pearl River Tower Guangzhou China INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .

deflection / vibration) Extremely rare actions – Prevention of collapse Design resistance = Available resistance / safety factor INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .Structural behaviour & limit state design • Structures and their members and connection must meet various performance requirements – i.e. • • • Strength limit state – SAFTEY of the structure Serviceability limit state – Occupancy performance (i.e. limit states.

Lateral force resisting systems INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .

High strength steel connections Connections Hearst Tower. New York INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .

Low yield / tensile ratios for seismic resistance INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .

Designing the right microstructures INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .

000 S960Q S890Q 800 S690Q 600 Yield Strength (MPa) S460N 400 200 0 N and N-rolled 1945 1955 1965 S355J2 S355N Q+T S460M S355M TMCP S500M 1975 1985 1995 2005 Year INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .General evolution of structural steels S1110Q 1.

General evolution of structural steels S1110Q 1.000 S960Q S890Q 800 600 Yield Strength (MPa) These grades are available in India ! S690Q S500M S460N 400 200 0 N and N-rolled 1945 1955 1965 S355J2 S355N Q+T S460M S355M TMCP 1975 1985 1995 2005 Year INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .

45 Carbon equivalent Ceq (%) Lower Ceq is better ! INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .20 0.Relationship of yield strength and carbon equivalent 600 550 Normalised TM-rolled Yield Strength (MPa) 500 450 400 350 300 250 0.40 0.25 0.35 0.30 0.

• • INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE . Zone III: Strict procedure control and post-weld heat treatment needed. lattice distortion and hardness is relatively low. Try to diffuse the [H] away. and temper the phases. Zone II: higher hardenability. minimal precautions needed.Relationship between weldability and carbon equivalent • Zone I: carbon < 0. we may tolerate up to HV <450. If [H] < 5 ppm. need to control the welding procedure (preheats and heat input) to ensure HV<350.11%. stress relieve the weld.

Why micro-alloy with Niobium ?  Value adding: Increases strength + improves toughness Allows for better weldability  Cost effective alloying element for steelmakers. INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .

Why micro-alloy with Niobium ? Microstructure refinement with Nb Additional benefits with Accelerated Cooling INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .

Advantages of S355 and S460 steels with Nb INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .

55 P 0.012 0.004 0.50 0.45 1.04 0.012 0. QT = quenched plus tempered.04 Cu none none 0.015 0.005 0.04 0.36 (N = normalised.25 Mn 1.004 Al 0.03 0.60 0.15 0.35 0.04 0.005 Ti 0.004 0.03 N 0.004 0.40 0.015 V none none 0.07 Si 0.012 0.012 0.015 0.25 Mo none none none 0.30 none Ni none none 0.30 0.04 0.015 0.Types of 50mm Nb high strength steel plates Steel grade Processing S355 N S355 TM S460 N S460 QT S460 TM + ACC C 0.015 0.03 0.50 1.15 0.03 0.004 0.012 S 0.40 0.60 0.005 0.25 none CEq 0.005 0.60 0.005 0.45 0. TM = thermomechanically rolled. TM + ACC = thermomechanically rolled plus accelerated cooled) INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .50 1.07 0.12 none 0.31 0.03 0.40 0.04 Nb 0.10 0.50 1.

Why use higher strength Nb-steels ? • • • • • Higher Strength Lower Weight Lower Weight Higher Strength = Lower Weight = Lower Transportation = Easier Handling = Reduced Thickness Reduced Thickness = Reduced Welds • • Reduced Welds Reduced Welds = Reduced Time = Reduced Costs INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .

Advantages of Nb-S355 TM rolled vs Normalised Source: Dillinger INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .

Advantages of Nb-S460 NL steel Source: Dillinger INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .

Advantages of Nb-S460ML vs. S460NL steel Source: Dillinger INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .

Reducing congestion with higher strength Nb rebar INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .

Advantages of using Nb higher strength steels at >355MPa INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .

China – Phoenix international media center INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .

000t Grades: Q345C Q345GJD Q420GJD Q460GJE Plate thickness: 16-36m INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .China – Phoenix international media center Steel amount: 7.

Commercial advantages In 2008 the hotel chain Travelodge opened its first hotel built from modified high strength steel shipping containers! Estimated to cut 10% from the cost of each build.     86 High strength steel containers Annual saving of £10m 120 rooms fitted in Shenzen. China Construction time = 20 days INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE . and improve construction speed by 25%.

The trend is to higher strengths and longer spans to further increase the value in use. purlins etc.High strength Nb cold / hot rolled strip steel • • Nb-bearing hot rolled and cold rolled strip steels (Galv). S390GD and S450GD grades tend to be Nballoyed Hot Dip Zinc Coated (275g/m2 both sides) 1. • • • • • • • EN10326 S350GD. INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE . Typical applications include composite floor deck.2 to 3mm in thickness Up to 350mm in section length and 90mm flange width Up to 18m in length.

2.  Reduced weight of materials required and resultant reduced transportation/handling costs. 5. 3. Reduced construction time Reduced costs Reduced maintenance Greater load bearing capability Better strength to weight ratios  High strength-to-weight ratios minimises the sub-structure costs.  Allows pre-fabrication of components away from construction site.  Light weight enables erection of larger sections. INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE . 4.Advantages of Nb high strength steels The application of steels in such civil construction projects allows the following advantages: 1.  Recyclable.

Quality Availability Fabrication Price INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE .Addressing the issues….

Thank you for your kind attention For further information.uk Tel: +91 9870 955 508 INNOVATE • RESPECT • COMPETE . discussion and questions do not hesitate to contact me.co. Dr Jitendra Patel International Metallurgy Ltd Mail: jp@imetallurgy.