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# Statistics

analysis and presentation of numerical data. interpretation. .• STATISTICS is a mathematical science involving the collection.

.USES OF STATISTICS • Statistics is often used to make predictions based on data • In Education statistics can be used to assess students performance and correlate factors affecting teaching and learning process to improve quality of education. the causes and effects of misbehavior. • In Psychology statistics is used to determine attitudinal patterns. • in the field of medicine statistics is used to collect information about patients and diseases and to make decisions about the use of new drugs or treatment.

In business • An important application of statistics is business analytics. which is the use of data analysis and modeling to help businesses achieve better performance. .

Statistics Descriptive statistics Involves the organization. and display of data. summarization. Inferential statistics Involves using a sample to draw conclusions about a population.Branches of Statistics The study of statistics has two major branches: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. .

• Inferential statistics concerned with the formulation or drawing of conclusion about a population based on an observation on a sample drawn from a population. organizing and presenting data appropriately and creatively to describe group characteristics. .FIELDS OF STATISTICS • Descriptive statistics is concerned with the methods of collecting.

• Sample – it is a finite number of objects selected from a population .• Population is a complete set of individual’s objects or measurement having some common observable characteristics.

Stratified Samples A stratified sample has members from each segment of a population. Freshmen Sophomores Juniors Seniors . This ensures that each segment from the population is represented.

This is used when the population falls into naturally occurring subgroups. .Cluster Samples A cluster sample has all members from randomly selected segments of a population. All members in each selected group are used.

A starting number is randomly selected and sample members are selected at regular intervals. Every fourth member is chosen.Systematic Samples A systematic sample is a sample in which each member of the population is assigned a number. .

• Variables are quantities that may take anyone of a specified set of values. .CONSTANTS AND VARIABLES • Constants refer to the fundamental quantities that do not change in value.

monthly income. religion .Classifications of Variables 1. Example: sex . hourly output of a machine . object or event possesses. Qualitative variables are non-measurable characteristics that cannot assume a numerical value but can be classified into two or more categories. Examples: age. occupation . size of family. color 2. Quantitative variables specifically they indicate how much of a given characteristics and individual.

the speed of the cars g. Weekly budget allowance i. the marital status of each person living on a city c. weight of a truck f. The number of women students in a class . religious affiliation of each student h. The • • • • • • • • height of each student in mathematics class b. Monthly income of teachers d.State whether the following types of data are qualitative or quantitative • a. Educational attainment e.

They are represented by counting numbers or whole numbers. • Continuous variables – these are the data obtained by measurement. .Classification: • Discrete / discontinuous variable – these are the data obtained by counting.

.Types of Data according to their sources • Primary data – these are the data/information which are gathered directly from an original source.these are information which are taken from published or unpublished data. • Secondary data.

except when conducting census. Disadvantages: It is time.Methods of Collecting Data • Direct or Interview Method is a person-to-person interaction between an interviewer and an interviewee. • Indirect or Questionnaire method – written responses are obtained by distributing questionnaires. . money and effort consuming and it will be applicable only for small population. Questionnaire – a list of questions intended to elicit answers to a given problem. Advantages: Precise and consistent answers can be obtained by modifying or rephrasing the questions especially to illiterate respondents or to children under study.

money and efforts are consumed. . Disadvantages: Many responses may not be consistent due to the poor construction of the questionnaire. • Registration Method – is enforced by private organizations or governmeny agencies for recording purposes. Disadvantages: Problem arises only when an agency doesn’t have a Management Information System and if the system or process of registration is not implemented well. Advantages: Organized data from an institution can serve as ready references for future study or for personal claims of people’s records. Inconsistent responses can no longer be modified. it reduces valid number of respondents.Advantages: Lesser time . thus.

• Telephone interview – this method is employed if the questions to be asked are brief and few. .• Observation Method –is a scientific method of investigation that makes possible use of all senses to measure or obtain outcomes/responses from the object of study. • Experimentation – is used when the objective is to determine the cause-and-effect of a certain phenomenon under some controlled conditions.

A simulation is the use of a mathematical or physical model to reproduce the conditions of a situation or process. A survey is an investigation of one or more characteristics of a population. a treatment is applied to part of a population. A census is a measurement of an entire population. . In an experiment. a researcher observes and measures characteristics of interest of part of a population. and responses are observed. A sampling is a measurement of part of a population.Methods of Data Collection In an observational study.