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Name Victor Maundu Elisha Ngatia Raphael Mumbo Odhiambo Catherine Waitherero Milcah Onsoti Felix Chengula ID Number 630420 628451 624471 632620 630448 629187

.INTRODUCTION  Communication is the activity or process of expressing ideas and feelings or giving people information  Oral is spoken  Written is expressed in writing.

instructions of information and analytical reports. letters. scripts for oral presentation and articles. proposal. . minutes of meeting.TYPES OF WRITING  Memos.

• Writing regularly helps one enhance in their writing skills which could be beneficial. • The purpose of you writing is what will determine the type of writing that is required from you such as the degree of formality. . essential and play a crucial part to one’s success. But also keep in mind that however how much you write. it’s the quality of the writing you offer that will reflect evidence of one’s potential and character. the form in which you should write and also the varying length of the write up.

product) .  Examining effects of a change(policy. others.MAJOR PURPOSES OF WRITING  To analyze the causes and effects of a problem and often to suggest a solution. procedure. a procedure or product  To set forward instructions for carrying out procedures.  To report on the status of a situation or project such as to update progress  To explain a process or procedure  Evaluating your self.

DEVELOP READER SENSITIVITY In order to develop reader sensitivity you need to:  Think of readers as whole persons No matter who your readers are. but who ever or where ever they could be in relation to the writer.  Identify specific writer/reader ties As a writer. work. you need to try understanding the readers and simply imaging them as whole people and put yourself in their shoes. located. they should be able to relate to what the writer is communicating to them. gender. social and economic status. beliefs and values. .

. It involves offering or requesting of information or resources by sharing a joint effort commitment and common understanding with your peers. Collateral also implies “a supportive and reinforcing professional relationship”. The way you communicate with your peers should be able to figure in problemsolving processes clearly. so in this case the relationship is a tie between you and your peers within or perhaps with other organizations too.IDENTIFY WRITER/READER TIES  Collaterally supportive ties Collateral means parallel or side-to-side.

.policies and determine priorities. Strategically supportive ties These relate to an organization to those who plan budgets .  Tactically supportive ties Organizational strategies are only put into work once they are defined into tactics and these tactics become actions performed by people.

SIGNALING YOUR READERS  Preview  Review  Linkage  Reinforcement .

. discussions are all forms of oral communication. Speeches.WHAT IS ORAL COMMUNICATION Oral communication implies communication through mouth. presentations.

One-on-One Speaking (Student-Student or Student-Teacher)  2. Full-Class Discussions (Teacher.Types of oral communication  1. Speeches and Presentations  6.or Student-Led)  4. Small-Group or Team-Based Oral Work  3. Oral Examinations . In-Class Debates and Deliberations  5.

 Demonstrate how a healthy self-concept improves communication.STAGES OF ORAL COMMUNICATION There are nine stages of oral communication:  Identify the fundamental elements of the communication process.  Use the English language effectively to reflect the intended message.  Explain how perception affects communication.  Demonstrate effective listening habits and skills. .

 Interpret and employ nonverbal cues to optimize communication. .  Apply effective communication skills in a variety of contexts.  Manage relational conflict.  Identify and apply strategies to assure the maximum health of interpersonal relationships.

What is a Problem?  Any situation that invites resolution  Deviation from the norm  Any situation that needs attention .

What is problem solving?  The process of working through details of a problem to reach a solution. .  When in a fix. instead figure out what knocked it over and how to avoid spills in the future. no need to cry over spilled milk.  Addressing a problems root cause will allow you to find the solution.

) I’m not sure which model to get I don’t know where to start  Explore/analyze the problem: from different view points  questions should be asked eg.Steps involved in problem solving  Identify and name the problem: GOAL (I want to…)  Buy a new computer Set up a new business BARRIER (but.. how long has the existed problem what are the effects of the problem  information gathered and sifted .

and how. Identify possible solutions: the goal of this stage is to complete a list of all conceivable alternatives to the problem through: eg. brainstorming  Select the best solutions: one should consider whether or not the solutions chosen solve the problem or just minimizes it  Evaluate the solutions by weighing its pros and cons  Develop an Action Plan :An action plan is a chart that lists the tasks that need to be done and identifies when and what action is necessary. . where to start.

 Implement a possible solution: in this stage focus is on the best way to make the solution apply and do it END THANK YOU .