\

+
s
c c
W q
g
Z g
g
v v P
U
P
S T h
P
U h
d
d d , d d d + =


.

\

+ =
0 d d
d d d
d = + + + + +
s
c c
W q
g
Z g
g
v v P
S T
) ( d d d losses q S T + =
No Work
 sin d d L Z =
L
losses
g
g
L g
v v
L
P
c c
d
) ( d sin
d
d
d
d 
+ + =

.

\

\

d
d
General Flow Equation
Fanning friction factor ( f ):
Wall shear stress:
Darcy or Moody friction factor (f
m
):


.

\

=
c
w
g
v
f
2
2
t
P
P+dP
  L d
d
P P P
w
d ) (
4
) d (
2
t t
t
=


.

\

+
d g
f v
d L
P
c
w
f
2
2 4
d
d t
= =

.

\

d g
v f
L
P
f f
c
m
f
m
2 d
d
4
2
=

.

\

=
d g
v f
g
g
L g
v v
L
P
c
m
c c
2
sin
d
d
d
d
2

+ + =

.

\

\

+

.

\

+

.

\

=

.

\

d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
Usually negligible
Zero for horizontal pipe
Single Phase Gas Flow
Reynolds Number
Reynolds Number in Gas Pipeline:
) cp (
) /ft lb ( ) ft/sec ( ) ft (
1488
3
m
Re
v d
N =
g
g g
g g g
A
q
v q A v
sc sc
sc sc
t
=


.

\

=
Single Phase Gas Flow
Friction Factor
Laminar Flow (N
Re
< 2100):
Turbulent Flow (N
Re
> 2100): Moody Diagram
Smooth Wall Pipe:
Rough Wall Pipe:
Re
64
N
f
m
=
6
Re
3 32 . 0
Re
10 3 10 3 5 . 0 0056 . 0 < < + =
N for N f
m
in 0006 . 0 : ,
25 . 21
log 2 14 . 1
1
9 . 0
Re
10
=


.

\

+ = c
c
Commonly
N d
f
m
Single Phase Gas Flow
General Equation
g
g g
c
m
c c
d
q
v
d g
v f
g
g
L g
v v
L
P
sc sc
t

2
2
4
,
2
sin
d
d
d
d
= + + =

.

\

d g
RT z
PM
d
RT
M P
q
RT z
PM
f
g
g
RT z
PM
L
P
c
g
g
sc
g sc
g
g
g
m
c
g
g
sc
2
4
sin
d
d
2
2





.

\



.

\

+


.

\

=

.

\

t 
R P d T g
f T z q M P
RT z g
g PM
L
P
sc c
m g g g sc
g c
g
sc
5 2 2
2 2
8 sin
d
d
t

+ =

.

\

\

+


.

\

=

.

\

 t

sin
8 sin
d
d
5 2 2
2 2 2 2
2
d gT
f T z q P
P
RT z g
g M
L
P
P
sc
m av av g sc
av av c
g
sc
If T and z
g
are constant (T=T
av
and z
g
=z
av
):
2
sin
d 1
2
2 2
S
R T z g
L g M
C P
P P
P
P
av av c
g
= =
+
}

S
C P
C P
=


.

\

+
+
2 2
2
2 2
1
ln ( ) 1
2 2
2
2
1
+ =
S S
e C P e P
C
2
( ) ( )
5 . 0
5 2
2
2
1
5 . 0
5 2
2
2
1
6354 . 5 94 . 198
(
(


.

\

=
(
(
=
e m av av g
s
sc
sc
e m av av g
s
g
L f T z
d P e P
P
T
L f T z
d P e P
q
sc


.

\

+ =
S
e
L
d
q T f z
P e P
S
g av m av g
S
sc
1
(ft)
in) (
Mscfd) ( R) ( 10 527 . 2
5
2 o 5
2
2
2
1
Single Phase Gas Flow
General Equation
( ) 1
16
5 2 2
2 2
2
2
2
1
+ =
S
c sc
g m av av g sc
S
e
R S g d T
M L f T z q P
P e P
sc
t
L
e
) R (
) ft ( 0375 . 0
o
av av
g
T z
Z
S Where
A
=
L L
S
e
Pipe Horizontal For
e
S
S
= =
1
1
lim :
0
Single Phase Gas Flow
Average Pressure
1 0
2 2
1
< < = x Where x L K P P
x
) 1 (
2
2
2
x L K P P
x
=
( ) 1
16
5 2 2
2 2
2
2
2
1
+ =
S
c sc
g m av av g sc
S
e
R S g d T
M L f T z q P
P e P
sc
t
 
5 . 0
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2 2 2
1
) (
1
P P x P P
x
P P
x
P P
x
x x
=


.

\

=


.

\

+
+ = =
} 2
2
2
1
3
2
3
1
2 1
2
2
1
1
0
3
2
3
2
d
P P
P P
P P
P
P P x P P
av x av
Single Phase Gas Flow
Erosional Velocity
Higher velocities will cause erosion of the pipe interior
over a long period of time. The upper limit of the gas
velocity is usually calculated approximately from the
following equation:
) lbm/ft (
100
ft/s) (
3
max
g
v
=
Usually, an acceptable operational velocity is 50% of the above.
Single Phase Gas Flow
Pipeline Efficiency
In Practice, even for singlephase gas flow, some water or
condensate may be present. Some solids may be also
present. Therefore the gas flow rate must be multiply by
an efficiency factor (E).
A pipeline with E greater than 0.9 is usually considered
clean .
Single Phase Gas Flow
NonIterative Equations
Several equations for gas flow have been derived from General
Equation. These equations differ only in friction factor relation
assumed:
Gas Transmission Pipline
1. AGA equation
2. Weymouth equation
3. Panhandle A equation
4. Panhandle B equation
Gas Distribution Pipeline
1. IGT equation
2. Spitzglass equation
3. Mueller equation
4. Fritzsche equation
Single Phase Gas Flow
AGA Equation
The transmission factor is defined as:
First, F is calculated for the fully turbulent zone. Next, F is
calculated based on the smooth pipe law. Finally, the smaller of
the two values of the transmission factor is used.
m
f
F
2
=


.

\

=


.

\

=

.

\

=
Pipe Smooth
F
N
F
F
N
F
Turbulent Fully
d
F
Min
t
t
t
6 . 0 log 4 ,
4125 . 1
log 4
7 . 3 log 4
Re
10
Re
10
10
c
Single Phase Gas Flow
Weymouth Equation
The Weymouth equation is used for high pressure, high flow
rate, and large diameter gas gathering systems.
The Weymouth friction factor is:
3 / 1
032 . 0
d
f
m
=
Single Phase Gas Flow
Panhandle A Equation
The Panhandle A Equation was developed for use in large
diameter natural gas pipelines, incorporating an efficiency factor
for Reynolds numbers in the range of 5 to 11 million. In this
equation, the pipe roughness is not used.
The Panhandle A friction factor is:
1461 . 0
Re
0768 . 0
N
f
m
=
Single Phase Gas Flow
Panhandle B Equation
The Panhandle B Equation is most applicable to large diameter,
high pressure transmission lines. In fully turbulent flow, it is
found to be accurate for values of Reynolds number in the range
of 4 to 40 million.
The Panhandle B friction factor is:
03922 . 0
Re
00359 . 0
N
f
m
=
Single Phase Gas Flow
Gas Transmission Equations
A. Comparison of the calculated Output Pressure by AGA,
Colebrook, Weymouth and Panhandle equations: Figure 2.5
B. Comparison of the calculated Flow rate by AGA, Colebrook,
Weymouth and Panhandle equations: Figure 2.6
We therefore conclude that the most conservative flow equation
that predicts the highest pressure drop is the Weymouth equation
and the least conservative flow equation is Panhandle A.
Single Phase Gas Flow
IGT Equation
The IGT equation proposed by the Institute of Gas Technology is
also known as the IGT distribution equation:
cp , 861 . 35
667 . 2
555 . 0
2 . 0 8 . 0
2
2
2
1
=


.

\



.

\

=
d
L T
P e P
P
T
q
e av g
s
sc
sc
g
sc
Single Phase Gas Flow
Spitzglass Equation
The Spitzglass equation originally was used in fuel gas piping
calculations. This equation has two version
A. Low pressure (less than 1 psig):
B. High pressure (more than 1 psig):
5 . 2
5 . 0
2 1
) 03 . 0
6 . 3
1 (
956 . 278 d
d
d
L T
P P
P
T
q
e av g
sc
sc
g
sc




.

\

+ +


.

\

=
5 . 2
5 . 0
2
2
2
1
) 03 . 0
6 . 3
1 (
016 . 53 d
d
d
L z T
P e P
P
T
q
e av av g
S
sc
sc
g
sc




.

\

+ +


.

\

=
\



.

\

=
d
L T
P e P
P
T
q
e av g
s
sc
sc
g
sc
69 . 2
538 . 0
8587 . 0
2
2
2
1
28 . 41 d
L T
P e P
P
T
q
e av g
s
sc
sc
g
sc


.

\



.

\

=