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By:Aayush Pandey (09-13-059) Sudhankar Raw (09-13-049) Aditya Choudhary (09-13-069) Gourav Singh (09-13-025)
A Brief Introduction
• NTPC, India's largest power company powering one-fourth India • Set up in 1975 • A Maharatna Public Sector Company • The total installed capacity of the company is 39,674 MW (including JVs) with 16 coal based and 7 gas based stations, located across the country. In addition under JVs, 7 stations are coal based & another station uses naptha/LNG as fuel. • Apart from power generation, which is the mainstay of the company, NTPC has already ventured into consultancy, power trading, ash utilisation and coal mining. • NTPC ranked 337th in the ‘2012, Forbes Global 2000’ ranking of the World’s biggest companies.
Although the company has 17.75% of the total national capacity, but it contributes 27.40% of total power generation due to its focus on high efficiency.
Contribution of NTPC in powering India
Introduction to Vindhyachal Super Thermal Power Project
• • Vindhyachal station belongs to the western region. Presently the total capacity of this project is 3760 MW being the largest power generation plant in India. COAL SOURCE:Open cast mines: Northern coal fields limited (NCL) mines at Dudhichua (7Km) and Nigahi (10Km) and Jayant (5Km). FUEL OIL SOURCE:Indian oil corporation limited (IOCL) COLD (Customer operated lubricant and oil deposit) at Jayant (5Km). WATER SOURCE:Discharge canal of Singrauli Super Thermal Power Station (SSTPS). BENEFICIARY STATES:Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Goa, Daman & Diu and Dadar & Nagerhaveli The power flows out from Vindhyachal through 400KV power transmission system having ten lines and one 500KV Rihand-Dadri HVDC line. Vindhyachal also has Power grid’s HVDC back to back station connecting Northern and Western grid region.
Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6
Stage 2 Unit 7 Unit 8 Stage 3
210MW 210MW 210MW 210MW 210MW 210MW
Unit 9 500MW Unit 10 500MW
Stage 4 Unit 11 500MW (commissioned during our stay) Unit 12 500MW (will be commissioned shortly)
Unit 13 500MW (project under construction) TOTAL= 4760 MW*
Schematic flow chart of coal based power plant
Induced Draft Fan Coal Storage Coal Handling Plant Boiler Ash Handling Plant Ash Storage Hot Air Air Preheater Flue Gases Economiser Flue Gases Super Heater Valve
Bus Bars R
Y B Isolator Circuit Breaker Isolator Transformer
Forced Drought Fan
Turbine Feed Water Heater Alternator Exhaust Steam Condensor
Flue Gases Feed Water Pump
Circulating Water Pump Condensate Extraction Pump Cooling Tower Water Treatment River Chamber
Coal storage & Coal Handling Plant(CHP)
In CHP, coal is received at track hopper from mines through BOBR (bottom open bottom reclosed) Wagons. There are generally two types of wagons used:BOBR (coal is loaded from up and dispatched from bottom), used here BOXN (also known as wagon tippler, wagon is rotated to unload the coal) The unloaded coal is scooped into conveyor belt & subjected to further process of removal of extraneous material by passing the coal through suspended magnet, magnetic separators, metal detectors, belt weighers to ensure that sized coal, free of foreign material, is supplied to the power station. & then crushing to 20-200 mm size in crusher house. After crushing, the coal again screened for elimination of extraneous materials, weighed and sent to boiler bunkers. Excess coal, if any, is sent to coal yard for stacking where it is stored and retrieved by using Stacker- Reclaimer. Water sprinkling is done time to time and compacted by running Dozers. This prevents air pockets in coal heaps, helps in fire protection and preserve volatile materials to maintain calorific value of the fuel.
From the bunker the coal goes to a RC Feeder/ Gravimetric feeder which controls the amount of coal to be discharged for the further processing. The feeder consists of a belt and is used to measure the quantity of coal fed (generally measured in Tons/hour). From the Feeder, the coal goes to a helical structure (Ribon Shaped Path) which carries it to the mills for pulverizing. Generally mills are of two types used here:Ball and Tube arrangement: The mill usually consists of a large metal cylinder on which large steel balls are positioned. The cylinder revolves, forcing the coal under the balls to crush it. In this way coal is grounded to powder as fine as flour. Used only in stage II (2X500) in VSTPP. Bowl and roller arrangement: The mill usually consists of a large metal bowl on which large steel rollers are positioned. The bowl and roller revolves, forcing the coal under the roller to crush it. In this way coal is grounded to powder as fine as flour. Used in other stages at VSTPP. This pulverized coal is such that 70% of it passes the 200 mesh sieve (200 mesh means a sieve such that there are 200 holes in one square inch of area).
This pulverized coal is mixed with air (called primary air) and taken to boiler/ furnace using primary air fan (PA fan). Now secondary air is taken using forced draft fan (FD fan) to ignite the coal. To ignite the boiler for the first time oil is sprinkled. There are two types of oil used:LDO (Light Diesel Oil) HFO (High Furnace Oil) Boilers are generally of two types:Fire tube Water tube (used here) Natural Circulation (no need of external pump as density of steam and water is different) Forced Circulation (external pump is used as at high temp. & pressure the density of steam and water becomes equal.) used here
The boiler consists of a large number of tubes extending the full height of the structure and the heat produced in boiler raises the temperature of the water circulating in them to create steam which passes to the steam drum at very high pressure. The steam is then heated further in the super heater and fed through the outlet valve to the high pressure cylinder of the steam turbine (High pressure turbine). A fire ball is created in boiler to burn the coal and produce steam. Sensors and scanners are present in boiler to monitor the various parameters of boiler. The water used in boiler is demineralised water (ph 9.4 with no dissolved minerals) to prevent sludge formation and corrosion of the boiler and turbine blades. For this there is a DM plant (demineralising plant).
When the steam has been through the first cylinder (High Pressure) of the turbine, it is returned to the boiler and reheated using reheater before being passed through the other cylinder (Intermediate and Low Pressure) of the turbine.
From the turbine the steam passes into a condenser to be turned back into water called ‘condensate’. Then through CEP (condensate extract pump) condensate is pumped to Low pressure heaters (where it may be heated to about 250°C) to the deaerator (where the dissolved oxygen is removed according to Henry & Solubility laws i.e. with increase in temp., solubility of dissolved gases decreases) to boiler feed pump (it is most highest power consuming motor in the power plant i.e. 2% of generating unit), where the main loss (i.e. 44% loss) is occurred due to phase shift of steam to water making total efficiency of a power plant about 38%.
Boiler feed pump of two types are used here:a) Motor driven (driven using motor, used when plant is started) b) Turbine driven (driven using turbine, when plant makes to its full capacity, motor is stopped and steam rotating the turbine is used. Thus minimizing the consumption of high power) Then it is taken to high pressure heaters then to economizer where the temperature is raised sufficiently for the condensate to be returned to the lower half of the steam drum of the boiler and finally reconverted to steam. Where the cooling water for power stations is drawn from large rivers, estuaries or the coast, it can be returned directly to the source after use. Power stations situated on smaller rivers and inland do not have such vast water resources available, so the cooling water is passed through cooling towers (where its heat is removed by evaporation) and re- used (used here). There are three types of cooling tower:a) Natural (cooling is done naturally by allowing hot water in contact with outer atmosphere) b) Forced Draft (fan is used to cool the hot water by pushing the heat) c) Induced Draft (used here, fan is used to pull the heat from hot water)
There are two type of ash found in boiler: a) Fly ash (about 80%) b) Bottom ash (also called slurry) Then the flue gases are taken to Electrostatic Preceptors (ESP). The electrostatic precipitator consists of metal plates which are electrically charged .Dust and Grit in the flue gases are attracted on to these plates (as they are negatively charged colloid, so they are attracted to the positive charged plate of ESP), so that they do not pass up the chimney to pollute the atmosphere. Regular mechanical hammer blows cause the accumulations of ash, dust and grit to fall to the bottom of the precipitator, where they collect in a hopper for disposal. Additional accumulations of ash also collect in the hoppers beneath the furnace. The efficiency of ESP is about 99.8%. Finally, flue gases and remaining particles are drawn by the Induced Draught (ID) Fan (i.e. synchronous motor) into the main flue and to the chimney and then to atmosphere.
Turbines are of two types:Reaction (used here) Impulse There are three level of turbine:High Pressure (17 stages) Intermediate Pressure (12X2 stages) Low Pressure (6X2 stages) From the boiler, a steam pipe conveys steam to the turbine through a stop valve (which can be used to shut off steam in an emergency) and through control valves that automatically regulate the supply of the steam to the turbine. Stop valve and control valves are located in a steam chest and a governor, driven from the main turbine shaft, operates the control valves to regulate the amount of steam used. (This depends upon the speed of the turbine and the amount of electricity required from the generator). The turbine shaft usually rotates at 3000 revolutions per minute. This speed is determines by the frequency of the electricity system used in this country and is the speed at which a 2- pole generator must be driven to generate alternating current at a frequency of 50 /cycles per second. When as much energy as possible has been taken from the steam it is exhausted directly to the condenser.
• • • •
The AC generator or alternator is based upon the principle of faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction (i.e. when there is a flux linkage change across a conductor an induced emf comes into existence and if conductor is shorted, current passes through it) Consists generally of a stationary part called stator and a rotating part called rotor. The stator housed the armature windings. The rotor houses the field windings. D.C. Voltage is supplied to the field windings called excitation of generator. It is of three types: Static Excitation: Here first, excitation is given by battery, then after proper voltage build up, an output of generator is taken and then step down to required voltage and then rectified using rectifier before feeding the rotor as input to generator field winding. (Used only in Stage 1 of VSTPP). Brushless Excitation: Here there is Main exciter & Pilot exciter. The rotor of pilot exciter is a permanent magnet, which produces ac in stator winding. This ac is given to stator of main exciter after rectification. The main exciter output is directly connected to input of generator field winding after rectification through hollow shaft where the rectifier is mounted on the same shaft. Since there is no use of brush so called brushless excitation. (Used in other Stages of VSTPP)
DC exciter: Here the pilot exciter is a dc shunt generator feeding the field winding of main exciter which is a separately excited dc generator .The dc output of main exciter is given to the field winding of alternator through brushes and sliprings. The turbine is mechanically coupled with shaft/ rotor of the turbo generator. When steam rotates the turbine, the rotor also rotates. When the rotor is rotated, the line of magnetic field flux cut through the stator windings. This induces an electromagnetic force in the stator windings.
Specification of generator used here:
Manufactured: BHEL Cooling of stator winding: Directly water cooled Cooling of stator core & rotor: Directly hydrogen cooled Stator inner connection: YY Phase: 3 Frequency: 50Hz RPM: 3000 Active Power: 500 MW Apparent Power: 588 MVA Power Factor: 0.85(lag) Stator Voltage: 21 KV +- 1.05 KV (Stage II and III) and 15.75 KV (Stage I :: 210 MW) Stator Current: 16200 amps Rotor voltage: 340 volts Rotor Current: 4040 amps
Generator Cooling The winding of rotor and stator produces heat. This heat raises the temperature of the Generator. lf the temperature rises too much then the insulation breaks off and the Generator gets short circuited. As the whole Generator is synchronized, so it will affect all the Generator. So there must be a regular cooling of the generator to avoid Rise of temperature in the Generator.
Cooling of stator winding: Directly water cooled i,e, Distilled Water Cooling of stator core & rotor: Directly hydrogen cooled
Hydrogen cooling system Hydrogen is used as a cooling medium in large capacity generator in view of its high heat carrying capacity and low density. But in view of its forming an explosive mixture with oxygen, proper arrangement for filling, purging and maintaining its purity inside the generator have to be made. Also, in order to prevent escape of hydrogen from the generator casing, shaft sealing system is used to provide oil sealing.
GENERATOR SEALING SYSTEM Seals are employed to prevent leakage of hydrogen from the stator at the point of rotor exit. A continuous film between the rotor collar and the seal liner is maintained by means of oil at a pressure which is about 0.5 atm above the casing Hydrogen gas pressure. .
Generator Protection Since the generator is very costly as it is the main equipment for production. So several types of protection is given for the Generator. This protection includes different types of fault in the generator and use relay for the tripping signal of the generator. Some fault is controlled automatically but in case it can’t be solved automatically the generator stop production of power and the unit trips out. The different types of protection include the following:1) Over current protection 2) Over voltage protection 3) Earth fault protection 4) Differential protection 5) Over fluxing protection 6) Loss of excitation protection 7) Loss of synchronism protection 8) Inter turn protection 9) Negative sequence protection 10) Temperature alarm
Transformers used in the power plant The transformer used in the stage 1 (210MW) of the power plant is a 3 – phase transformer with Δ – Υ connection i.e. Δ on L.V. side and Υ on H.V. side. The reason for doing so is that the 3rd harmonic component of the voltage doesn’t appear in the line voltage in a 3 – phase Υ connection. The transformers used in stage 2 are single phase transformers that 3 single phase transformers. The rating there is 600 MVA out of which the real power output is 500 MW. The input in this case is 21 kV. The reason for using 3 different transformers in this case is due to the high power rating. To reduce the losses the core is made up of a special type of material which is CRGO (Cold Rolled Grain Oriented) steel which is further laminated to reduce the eddy current losses.
Generator transformer (GT) The generator is connected to this transformer by means of isolated bus duct. This transformer is used to step up the generating voltage of 15.75 KV (in Stage 1) or 21 KV (in stage II III) to grid voltage i.e 400 kV. This transformer is generally provided with OFAF cooling. Specification: Manufactured: BHEL No of units: 3 nos. per unit Power Rating: 200 MVA each No load HV voltage: 400/1.732 KV No load LV voltage: 21 KV Rated HV current: 824.8 amps Rated LV current: 9523.8 amps Phase: 1 Cooling: OFAF (oil forced air forced) Connection: YNd11 On Load Tap Changer: Tapping in 13 equal steps of 2.25% each provided on HV winding to give 5% to 10%
Unit Auxiliary Transformer (UAT):The UAT draws its input from the main bus duct connecting generator to the generator transformer. It is used for the working of large devices such as boilers, heavy motors etc. For large units, it has become necessary to use more than one auxiliary transformer. It uses the generated 15.75kV or 21 kV to convert into 6.6 kV. Specification: Manufactured: BHEL No of units: 2 nos. per unit Power Rating: 7.5 MVA each Voltage Ratio: 11/3.4 KV Current Ratio: 393.6/1255 amps Cooling: ONAN (oil natural air natural) Connection: dyn1 Type of neutral grounding: LV-NGR
Unit Transformer A part of power generated is given back to the unit for feeding the plant accessories. Specification: Manufactured: BHEL No of units: 2 nos. per unit Power Rating: 50 MVA each Voltage Ratio: 21/11.5 KV Current Ratio: 1374.4/2510.22 amps Cooling: ONAF (oil natural air forced) Connection: dyn1 Type of neutral grounding: LV-NGR
Station Transformer: The station transformer is used to feed the power to the auxiliaries during the start of the unit. This transformer normally rated for the initial auxiliary load requirements of unit. In physical cases this load is of order of 60% of the load at full generating capacity. It is also provided with on load tap changer to cater to the fluctuating voltage of the grid. Specification:
Manufactured: BHEL No of units: 1 nos. per unit Power Rating: 80/40/40 MVA each Voltage Ratio: 132/11 KV Cooling: OFAF (oil forced air forced) Connection: yn/yn0/yn0 Type of neutral grounding: LV1 and LV2-NGR
Cooling of transformer Heat is produced in the winding due to the current flowing in the conductors (I2R) and in the core on account of eddy currents and hysteresis losses. In small dry type transformer heat is dissipated directly to the atmosphere. In oil immersed transformer heat is dissipated by thermo siphon action. The purpose of using oil is:1. Cooling: Provides a better cooling and helps in exchanging heat 2. Insulation: A non conductor of electricity so good insulator. The oil used is such that its flash point is pretty high so that it doesn’t have any possibility to catch fire. There various types of cooling:AN - Air Natural ON - Oil Natural AF - Air forced OF - Oil forced ONAF - Oil natural Air forced OFAN -Oil forced Air natural OFAF - Oil forced Air forced
The oil serves as the medium for transferring the heat produced inside the transformer to the outside transformer. Thermo Siphon action refers to the circulating currents set up in a liquid because of temperature difference between one part of the container and other. When oil gets heated up the oil with greater temperature goes to the upper side of the transformer. Now, if it is Oil natural it is cooled in it as is whereas in Oil Forced, a radiator is being constructed and a pump is being attached to it to pull the oil from the upper part of the transformer. Now this oil in the chamber gets cooled either by direct heat exchanging through the atmosphere which is called Air Natural or by forced air draft cooling by a radiator with many electric fans which are automatically switched on and off depending upon the loading of transformer which is known as Air Forced cooling. As the oil gets cooled it becomes heavier and sinks to the bottom.
Conservator: With the variation of temperature there is corresponding variation in the oil volume. To account for this an expansion vessel called conservator is added to the transformer with a connecting pipe to the main tank. It is also used to store the oil and makeup of the oil in case of leakage. Breather: In conservator the moisture from the oil is excluded from the oil through breather it has a silica gel column, which absorbs the moisture in air before it enters the conservator air surface. Normally dehydrating gel is blue in appearance after the saturation it turns into pink. Radiator: This a chamber connected to the transformer to provide cooling of the oil. It has got fans attached to it to provide better cooling.
TRANSFORMER AGING Aging of the insulation system reduces both the mechanical and dielectric-withstand strength of the transformer. As the transformer ages, it is subjected to faults that result in high radial and compressive forces. As the load increases, with system growth, the operating stresses increase. In an aging transformer failure, typically the conductor insulation is weakened to the point where it can no longer sustain mechanical stresses of a fault. Turn to turn insulation then suffers a dielectric failure, or a fault causes a loosening of winding clamping pressure, which reduces the transformer's ability to withstand future short circuit forces.
Oil contamination can be regularly checked with periodic test (DGA) and regular monitoring of data.
Transformer Protection There are two types of protections: Mechanical Electrical
Mechanical Protection: Pressure regulating valve: Transformer tank is a pressure vessel as the inside pressure can grows steeply whenever there is a fault in the windings and the surrounding oil is suddenly vaporized. Tanks as such are tested for the pressure with stand capacity of 0.35 kg/cm to prevent bursting of tank and thus the catastrophe; these tanks in addition are provided with expansion vents with a thin diaphragm made of bakelite/copper/ glass at the end. This diaphragm is the Pressure Relief Device/ Expansion Vent which senses the pressure and releases the valve when the pressure is more than the specified limit.
Bucholz’s relay: This has 2 floats, one of them with surge catching baffle and gas collecting space at top. This is mounted in the connecting pipe line between conservator and main tank. Gas evolution at a slow rate, which is associated with minor fault inside the transformers i.e insapient fault, gives rise to the operation or top float whose contacts are wired for alarm. There is a glass window with marking to read the volume of gas collected in the relay. Any major fault in the transformer creates a surge element in the relay, and trips the transformer. Size of the relay varies with oil volume in the transformer and the mounting angle also is specified for proper operation of the relay.
Temp. Indicators: Most of the transformers are provided with indicators that displace oil temperature and winding temperature there are thermometers pockets provided in the tank top cover which hold the sensing bulls in them. Oil temperature measured that of the top oil, where as the winding temperature measurement is indirect. This is done by adding the temperature rise due to the heat produced in a heater coil when a current proportional to that following in windings is passed in it to that or top oil. For proper functioning of OTI and WTI it is essential to keep the thermometers pocket clean and filled with oil. Nowadays, the temp. In the transformer is measured by a device called RTD (Resistance Temp. Detector). This works on the principle that the change in resistance is directly proportional to the change in temp. And thus, the temp. is monitored by keeping track of the resistance.
Electrical protection: I. Biased Differential Protection: It responds to the vector difference between two similar quantities. Here CT’s are connected at each end of transformer. The CT’s secondary are connected in star (when transformer winding are connected in delta) or delta(when transformer winding are connected in star) and pilot wires are connected between the CT’s of each end. During normal condition and for through fault current fed into pilot wires are equal from both ends During internal faults such as phase to phase or phase to ground ,the balance is disturbed. The out of balance current flows through the relay operating coil. To avoid unwanted operation on through fault restoring coil are provided in series with pilot wires. II. Earth fault Protection: Earth fault relays connected in residual circuit of line CT‘s give protection against earth faults on the delta or unearthed star connected winding of transformer. Earth faults on secondary side are not reflected on primary side, when the primary winding is delta connected or has unearthened star point. In such cases an earth fault relay connected in residual circuit of 3 CT’s on primary side operation internal earth fault in primary winding only. Because earth faults on secondary side do not produce zero sequence currents on primary side. III. Over load Protection: Protected by using over current relays and thermal relays
IV.Over fluxing Protection: V/F Relays are used for over flux protection
BUS SECTIONALISER MAIN BUS 1
MAIN BUS 3 MAIN BUS 5
MAIN BUS 2
MAIN BUS 4 MAIN BUS 6
400 KV SWITCHYARD
The basic purpose of switchyard is to protect the system and transmit power to the consumer premises. The switchyard mainly comprises of the following Switchgear equipment: Isolators: - An isolator is one which can break an electric circuit when the circuit is to be switched on no-load. These are normally used in various circuits for the purpose of isolating a certain portion when required for maintenance etc. The most common form of isolator is:Rotating centre post type: In which each phase has three insulators post, with the outer post carrying fixed contacts and connections while the centre post having the contact arm which is arranged to move through 90° on its axis. Centre break isolator: It breaks the circuit from centre. Both the arms of isolator are detached to break the circuit. The isolators are driven by an operating mechanism box normally installed near the ground level. Isolator cannot operate unless the breaker is open.
Circuit Breaker: - A circuit breaker is one which can break or make the circuit on load and even on faults. There are two medium used in CB. Quenching medium absorbs the arc produced during contact while operating medium is the medium by which circuit breaks. The circuit breaker can be classified in different ways. On the basis of quenching medium i. Air blast circuit breaker ii. Sulphur hexa-fluoride circuit breaker iii. Oil immersed circuit breaker Inter connecting transformer:- This is a transformer used to connect two buses at different voltage. Bus coupler:- It is used to couple two bus bar at the same voltage. Bus sectionaliser:- It is used to divide a bus into two parts, one carrying current and other isolated.
Lightening arrestor:- Lightening arrestor are provide at the terminals of the transformers for protection against lightening or any surges developing in the system. There is a practice to install lightening arrestor at the incoming terminals of the line. Shielding of the substation from the direct lightening stroke is provided through earth wires located at structure's peaks. Recently, mesh are also being considered for the purpose of shielding the sub-station. Current transformer: - The current transformer is single phase oil immersed type. It is used to measure the amount of current entering the CB. The secondary current is generally 1 amp. Or 5 amp. in some cases CVT's (Capacitor voltage transformer):They are used at 220KV and above, for the lower voltage, electro-magnetic type of voltage transformer are mostly used. The secondary voltage is 110/3 volts. (h)Relay port system:- In this system different relays are equipped to measure any fault in the circuit. If there is any fault found then the system automatically breaks the circuit through CB.
(e)PLCC: It provide high frequency signal to the transmitting side of the main line. Function Communication: It can be used for communicating purpose for long distance. Safety: If there is any delay in giving command for relay or any delay in the breaker to break the circuit. It gives backup command to circuit breaker to break the circuit. PLCC is provided from the CVT's
It is used to restrict the high frequency signal to the input side (generator side). (g)Corona Ring Air get ionized when there is a high voltage flow through the conductor and produces a hiss sound and forms a blue ring this result in corona loss which is maximum at sharp edges. This is reduced by using corona ring.
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