46 views

Uploaded by scottsum

Fluid Mechanics

- SDBC Without Filler
- 09. Magnetism & Electromagnetic Induction
- 11. Light
- Ships Contruction and Calculation
- Load Reduction and Arching
- Offshore Fixed Rig Risk
- Chapter 3 Force & Pressure(Student)-Edited
- Modeling Motion and Loads on Stranded Ships in Waves
- PRESSURE ON LIQUID.pptx
- Buoyancy in Boats
- NSPHa Calculation
- 00056628
- Us 5911190
- AEEs-2012
- INEOS Engineering Properties of PP
- material and energy balance
- NSO Sample Paper
- Ships measurement
- D4052-densimetru digital.pdf
- 1B

You are on page 1of 72

5th Edition

Chapter 5: FLUID MECHANICS

Density Pressure Buoyancy in a Liquid Archimedes Principle Pressure in a Gas Atmospheric Pressure Pascals Principle Buoyancy in a Gas Bernoullis Principle

Density

Density

Important property of materials (solids, liquids, gases) Measure of compactness of how much mass an object occupies lightness or heaviness of materials of the same size

Density

Equation :

Units of:

mass in grams or kilograms volume in cm3 or m3 density in kg/m3 or g/cm3 Example: The density of mercury is 13.6 g/cm3, so mercury has 13.6 times as much mass as an equal volume of water (density 1 g/cm3).

Density

Weight density

in equation form:

than fresh water (density 62.4 lb/ft3)

A. B. C. D.

100 kg of lead 100 kg of water Both are the same None of the above

A. B. C. D.

100 kg of lead 100 kg of water Both are the same None of the above Explanation: They have the same mass and weight, but different volumes. Any amount of lead is more dense than any amount of water.

Pressure

force per unit area that one object exerts on another equation:

depends on area over which force is distributed

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Pressure in a Liquid

Force per unit area that a liquid exerts on something Depth dependent and not volume dependent Example: Swim twice as deep and the pressure due to

the weight of water above you is twice as much. (For total pressure, add to this the atmospheric pressure acting on the water surface.)

Pressure in a Liquid

Effects of water pressure

acts perpendicular to surfaces of a container

liquid spurts at right angles from a hole in the surface curving downward The greater the depth, the greater the exiting speed

Pressure in a Liquid

Acts equally in all directions

Examples:

your ears feel the same amount of pressure under water no matter how you tip your head bottom of a boat is pushed upward by water pressure pressure acts upward when pushing a beach ball under water

Pressure in a Liquid

Independent of shape of container whatever the shape of a container, pressure at any particular depth is the same Equation: liquid pressure = weight density depth

Water Tower

Force of gravity acting on the water in a tall tower produces pressure in pipes below that supply many homes with reliable water pressure.

Pressure CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR Suppose water from a tall tower supplies a nearby home. If water faucets upstairs and downstairs are turned fully on, will more water per second flow from the downstairs or the upstairs faucet? Or will water flow in each be the same?

A. B. C. D. Downstairs. Upstairs. Same. Not enough information in problem.

Pressure CHECK YOUR ANSWER Suppose water from a tall tower supplies a nearby home. If water faucets upstairs and downstairs are turned fully on, will more water per second flow from the downstairs or the upstairs faucet? Or will water flow in each be the same?

A. B. C. D. Downstairs Upstairs Same Not enough information in problem. Explanation: Water pressure depends on the depth below the free surface. Downstairs faucets are simply deeper and receive greater pressure, which means greater rate of water flow.

Does a 3-meter deep lake or a 6-meter deep small pond exert more pressure on a dam?

A. B. C. D.

The three-meter deep lake. The six-meter deep small pond. Same amount of pressure is exerted (atmospheric) so same force. Not enough information given in the question.

Does a 3-meter deep lake or a 6-meter deep small pond exert more pressure on a dam?

A. B. C. D. The three-meter deep lake. The six-meter deep small pond. Same amount of pressure is exerted (atmospheric) so same force. Not enough information given in the question.

Buoyancy in a Liquid

Buoyancy

apparent loss of weight of a submerged object amount equals the weight of water displaced

Archimedes Principle

Archimedes Principle

discovered by Greek scientist Archimedes relates buoyancy to displaced liquid states that an immersed body (completely or partially) is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces applies to gases and liquids

Archimedes Principle

Apparent weight of a submerged object

weight out of water buoyant force Example: if a 3-kg block submerged in water apparently weighs 1 kg, then the buoyant force or weight of water displaced is 2 kg (BF = wt out of water apparent wt = 3 kg 1 kg = 2 kg)

Archimedes Principle

Displacement rule:

A completely submerged object always displaces a volume of liquid equal to its own volume. Example: Place a stone in a container that is

brim- full of water, and the amount of water overflow equals the volume of the stone

Archimedes Principle

Buoyant force is equal to the weight of fluid displaced. It can also be understood by pressure differences. The greater pressure against the bottom of the box, minus the pressure on the top, results in an upward forcethe buoyant force.

Archimedes Principle

Buoyant Force

Buoyant force is equal to the weight of fluid displaced. Understood by pressure differences greater pressure against the box pressure on the top of box

A. B. C. D.

A. B. C. D.

1 kg of lead. 1 kg of aluminum. 1 kg of uranium. All the same. Explanation: The largest block is the aluminum one. It displaces more water and therefore experiences the greatest buoyant force.

Archimedes Principle

Flotation

Principle of flotation

A floating object displaces a weight of fluid equal to its own weight Example: A solid iron 1-ton block may displace 1/8 ton of water and sink. The same 1 ton of iron in a bowl shape displaces a greater volume of waterthe greater buoyant force allows it to float

The reason a person finds it easier to float in salt water, compared with fresh water, is that in salt water

A. B. C. D.

the buoyant force is greater. a person feels less heavy. a smaller volume of water is displaced. None of the above.

The reason a person finds it easier to float in salt water, compared with fresh water, is that in salt water

A.

B. C. D.

the buoyant force is greater. a person feels less heavy. a smaller volume of water is displaced. None of the above. Explanation: A floating person has the same buoyant force whatever the density of water. A person floats higher because a smaller volume of the denser salt water is displaced.

Archimedes Principle CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR On a boat ride, the skipper gives you a life preserver filled with lead pellets. When he sees the skeptical look on your face, he says that youll experience a greater buoyant force if you fall overboard than your friends who wear Styrofoamfilled preservers.

A. B.

Archimedes Principle CHECK YOUR ANSWER On a boat ride, the skipper gives you a life preserver filled with lead pellets. When he sees the skeptical look on your face, he says that youll experience a greater buoyant force if you fall overboard than your friends who wear Styrofoamfilled preservers.

A. B. He apparently doesnt know his physics. He is correct.

Explanation: Hes correct, but what he doesnt tell you is youll drown! Your life preserver will submerge and displace more water than those of your friends who float at the surface. Although the buoyant force on you will be greater, the net force downward is greater still!

Pressure in a Gas

The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland illustrates Figure 5.17 in your book. Each of the two caissons weigh the same regardless of the weights of floating boats they carry.

Pressure in a Gas

Gas pressure is a measure of the amount of force per area that a gas exerts against containing walls. Here the force is exerted by the motion of molecules bouncing around. Temperature is a measure of the KE per molecules of the gas.

Pressure in a Gas

Relationship between pressure and density

Gas pressure is proportional to density Example: Air pressure and air density inside an inflated tire are greater than the atmospheric pressure and density outside Twice as many molecules in the same volume air density doubled For molecules moving at the same speed (same temperature), collisions are doubled pressure doubled

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Pressure in a Gas

Double density of air by

Doubling the amount of air Decreasing the volume to half

Pressure in a Gas

Boyles Law

Relationship between pressure and volume for ideal gases An ideal gas is one in which intermolecular forces play no role States that pressure volume is a constant for a given mass of confined gas regardless of changes in pressure or volume (with temperature remaining unchanged) pressure volume = constant means that P1V1 = P2V2

When you squeeze a party balloon to 0.8 its volume, the pressure in the balloon

A. B. C. D.

is 0.8 its former pressure. remains the same if you squeeze it slowly. is 1.25 times greater. is 8 times greater.

When you squeeze a party balloon to 0.8 its volume, the pressure in the balloon

A.

B. C. D.

is 0.8 its former pressure. remains the same if you squeeze it slowly. is 1.25 times greater. is 8 times greater. Explanation: Boyles law, sweet and simple: P(1.0 V) = 1.25 P(0.8 V).

Earths Atmosphere

Atmosphere

ocean of air exerts pressure The Magdeburg-hemispheres demonstration in 1654 by Otto von Guericke showed the large magnitude of atmospheres pressure.

Atmospheric Pressure

Atmospheric pressure

Caused by weight of air Varies from one locality to another Not uniform Measurements are used to predict weather conditions

Atmospheric Pressure

Pressure exerted against bodies immersed in the atmosphere result from the weight of air pressing from above At sea level is 101 kilopascals (101 kPa) Weight of air pressing down on 1 m2 at sea level ~ 100,000 N, so atmospheric pressure is ~ 105 N/m2

Atmospheric Pressure

Pressure at the bottom of a column of air reaching to the top of the atmosphere is the same as the pressure at the bottom of a column of water 10.3 m high. Consequence: the highest the atmosphere can push water up into a vacuum pump is 10.3 m

Mechanical pumps that dont depend on atmospheric pressure dont have the 10.3-m limit

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Mechanical Pump

When the piston is lifted, the intake valve opens and air moves in to fill the empty space. When the piston is moved downward, the outlet valve opens and the air is pushed out.

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Barometers

Barometer

Device to measure atmospheric pressure Also determines elevation

Aneroid barometer

Small portable instrument that measures atmospheric pressure Calibrated for altitude, then an altimeter

A. B. C. D.

density of Earths atmosphere. weight of Earths atmosphere. temperature of the atmosphere. effect of the Suns energy on the atmosphere.

A. B. C. D.

density of Earths atmosphere. weight of Earths atmosphere. temperature of the atmosphere. effect of the Suns energy on the atmosphere.

Atmospheric Pressure CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR Two people are drinking soda using straws. Do they suck the soda up? Could they drink a soda this way on the Moon?

A. B. Yes and yes. No, they suck the air out and the atmospheric pressure pushes the soda up. Yes, they could do the same thing on the Moon. No, they reduce air pressure in the straw and the atmospheric pressure pushes the soda up. No, they could not do the same thing on the Moon. Yes. No, they could not do the same thing on the Moon.

C.

D.

Atmospheric Pressure CHECK YOUR ANSWER Two people are drinking soda using straws. Do they suck the soda up? Could they drink a soda this way on the moon?

A. B. Yes and yes. No, they suck the air out and the atmospheric pressure pushes the soda up. Yes, they could do the same thing on the Moon. No, they reduce air pressure in the straw and the atmospheric pressure pushes the soda up. No, they could not do the same thing on the Moon. Yes. No, they could not do the same thing on the Moon.

C.

D.

Pascals Principle

Pascals principle

Discovered by Blaise Pascal, a scientist and theologian in the 17th century States that a change in pressure at any point in an enclosed fluid at rest is transmitted undiminished to all points in the fluid Applies to all fluidsgases and liquids

Pascals Principle

Application in hydraulic press Example:

Pressure applied to the left piston is transmitted to the right piston A 10-kg load on small piston (left) lifts a load of 500 kg on large piston (right)

Pascals Principle CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR A 10-kg load on the left piston will support a 500-kg load on the right piston. How does the pressure of fluid against the lower part of the left piston compare with the pressure against the lower right piston?

A. B. C. D. More pressure on the left piston. More pressure on the right piston. Same pressure on each. Same force on each.

Pascals Principle CHECK YOUR ANSWER A 10-kg load on the left piston will support a 500-kg load on the right piston. How does the pressure of fluid against the lower part of the left piston compare with the pressure against the lower right piston?

A. B. C. D. More pressure on the left piston. More pressure on the right piston. Same pressure on each. Same force on each.

Pascals Principle

P1 P2 F1 F2 A1 A2

P1

F1 A1

Since the pressure in the fluid is the same at both ends of the tube, one can cleverly change the force and area to mechanically multiply each. This principle underlies a lot! P2

F2 A2

Pascals Principle

Application for gases and liquids seen in everyday hydraulic devices used in construction in auto lifts in service stations

increased air pressure produced by an air compressor is transmitted through the air to the surface of oil in an underground reservoir. The oil transmits the pressure to the piston, which lifts the auto.

(Here surface area of reservoir is irrelevant.)

A. B. C. D.

output piston to move farther than the input piston. force output to exceed the force input. output pistons speed to exceed the input pistons speed. energy output to exceed energy input.

A. B. C. D.

output piston to move farther than the input piston. force output to exceed the force input. output pistons speed to exceed the input pistons speed. energy output to exceed energy input. Explanation: This illustrates the conservation of energy, a cornerstone of all of science.

Buoyancy in a Gas

Archimedes principle applies to fluidsliquids and gases alike. Force of air on bottom of balloon is greater than force on top. Net horizontal forces cancel, but not vertical ones, which supplies the buoyant force. And this buoyant force equals the weight of displaced air!

Is there a buoyant force acting on your classmates at this moment? Defend your answer.

A. B. C. D.

No. If there were, they would float upward. Yes, but it is insignificant compared with their weights. Only in water, but not in air. None of these.

Is there a buoyant force acting on your classmates at this moment? Defend your answer.

A. B. C. D.

No. If there were, they would float upward. Yes, but it is insignificant compared with their weights. Only in water, but not in air. None of these.

Fluid Flow

Continuous flow

Volume of fluid that flows past any cross-section of a pipe in a given time is the same as that flowing past any other section of the pipe even if the pipe widens or narrows. Fluid speeds up when it flows from a wide to narrow pipe Motion of fluid follows imaginary streamlines

Bernoullis Principle

Bernoullis Principle Discovered by Daniel Bernoulli, a 15th century Swiss scientist States that where the speed of a fluid increases, internal pressure in the fluid decreases Applies to a smooth, steady flow

Bernoullis Principle

Streamlines

Thin lines representing fluid motion Closer together, flow speed is greater and pressure within the fluid is less (note the larger bubbles!) Wider, flow speed is less and pressure within the fluid is greater (greater pressure squeezes bubbles smaller)

Bernoullis Principle

Laminar flow

Smooth steady flow of constant density fluid

Turbulent flow

Flow speed above a critical point becomes chaotic

What happens to the internal water pressure in a narrowing pipe of moving water?

A. B. C. D.

What happens to the internal water pressure in a narrowing pipe of moving water?

A. B. C. D.

Explanation: This reduction in pressure would be apparent if air bubbles were in the flowing water. Note their sizes increase in the narrow part, due to reduced pressure there!

Applications of Bernoulli

Moving air gains speed above the roof of a house. This change in air velocity means reduced pressure on the roof. Therefore, air pressure inside the house is greater, which can raise the roof.

Bernoulli Application CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR The pressure in a stream of water is reduced as the stream speeds up. How then can a stream of water from a fire hose actually knock a person off his or her feet?

A. B. C. D. It cant, as Bernoullis principle illustrates. The pressure due to waters change in momentum can be much greater than the waters internal pressure. Bernoullis principle works only for laminar flow, which the stream is not. None of the above.

Bernoulli Application CHECK YOUR ANSWER The pressure in a stream of water is reduced as the stream speeds up. How then can a stream of water from a fire hose actually knock a person off his or her feet?

A. B. C. D. It cant, as Bernoullis principle illustrates. The pressure due to waters change in momentum can be much greater than the waters internal pressure. Bernoullis principle works only for laminar flow, which the stream is not. None of the above

Explanation: Theres a basic distinction between the pressure within flowing water and the pressure it can exert when its momentum is changed. The pressure that knocks one off his or her feet is due to the change in the waters momentum, not the pressure within the water.

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Airplane wing

The vertical vector represents the net upward force (lift) that results from more air pressure below the wing than above the wing. The horizontal vector represents the air drag force.

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Bernoulli Application CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR Air speeds up as it is blown across the top of the vertical tube. How does this affect the air pressure in the vertical tube, and what then occurs?

A. B. C. The air jet pulls liquid up the tube. Liquid mysteriously rises in the tube. Reduced air pressure in the tube (due to Bernoulli) lets atmospheric pressure on the liquid surface push liquid up into the tube where it joins the jet of air in a mist. Liquid in the vessel somehow turns to mist.

D.

Bernoulli Application CHECK YOUR ANSWER Air speeds up as it is blown across the top of the vertical tube. How does this affect the air pressure in the vertical tube, and what then occurs?

A. B. C. The air jet pulls liquid up the tube. Liquid mysteriously rises in the tube. Reduced air pressure in the tube (due to Bernoulli) lets atmospheric pressure on the liquid surface push liquid up into the tube where it joins the jet of air in a mist. Liquid in the vessel somehow turns to mist.

D.

Bernoulli Boats

When the speed of water increases between boats, Bernoulli must be compensated for or else the boats collide!

Bernoulli Umbrella

Why does Nellie Newton blame Bernoulli for her predicament?

- SDBC Without FillerUploaded byer_kenedy
- 09. Magnetism & Electromagnetic InductionUploaded byscottsum
- 11. LightUploaded byscottsum
- Ships Contruction and CalculationUploaded byArmskie
- Load Reduction and ArchingUploaded byChristian Grey
- Offshore Fixed Rig RiskUploaded byFranABCD
- Chapter 3 Force & Pressure(Student)-EditedUploaded byNuramalina Fauzi
- Modeling Motion and Loads on Stranded Ships in WavesUploaded byMahdi
- PRESSURE ON LIQUID.pptxUploaded byPutri Citra Dewi
- Buoyancy in BoatsUploaded byharrp3000
- NSPHa CalculationUploaded byYakubu
- 00056628Uploaded byJoel Lim Min Sheu
- Us 5911190Uploaded byاحمد عبدالكريم
- AEEs-2012Uploaded byRaghuma Reddy Bandaru
- INEOS Engineering Properties of PPUploaded bysimonorr17
- material and energy balanceUploaded byHammad Khan
- NSO Sample PaperUploaded byYakridu Anna
- Ships measurementUploaded bytsousi
- D4052-densimetru digital.pdfUploaded byCorina Stanculescu
- 1BUploaded bymadhav mittal
- 3025_12Uploaded byrambinod
- Level MeasurementUploaded bygalati12345
- L-Dens 427F Ex Density Sensor SpecificationsUploaded byd1arsenovski
- David E. Loper and H.K. Moffatt- Small-Scale Hydromagnetic Flow in the Earth's Core: Rise of a Vertical Buoyant PlumeUploaded byVortices3443
- 105 Air Cushion Mobility System.pdfUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- THE SEWERAGE OF SEA COAST TOWNSUploaded byUlil A Ja
- The Sewerage of Sea Coast TownsUploaded bystephanus_ananda
- SUMMARY OF EQUATIONS.docUploaded byMarc Erick Gaerlan
- 94491401-As-1289-5-3-1-2004-Methods-of-Testing-Soils-for-Engineering-Purposes-Soil-Comp-Action-and-Density-Tests-Dete.pdfUploaded byMuhammad Amin Shah
- Ion Associatif Melange de SolvantsUploaded byAdel Toumi

- comprehensive nclex exam answer keyUploaded byAmy
- Anatomy MnemonicsUploaded byscottsum
- Cloning, Stem Cells and EthicsUploaded byscottsum
- The Clonal AgeUploaded byscottsum
- 22. Shaping Earths SurfaceUploaded byscottsum
- History of MicrobiologyUploaded byscottsum
- AtomsUploaded byscottsum
- Heat TransferUploaded byscottsum
- 11. Plate TectonicsUploaded byscottsum
- MenstruationUploaded byscottsum
- RabiesUploaded byscottsum
- Plate TectonicsUploaded byscottsum
- BiopsychologyUploaded byscottsum
- States of ConsciousnessUploaded byscottsum
- CNS Disorders (CD Nursing)Uploaded byscottsum
- Galileo vs Aristotle on Free Falling BodiesUploaded byscottsum
- 12. Atoms & the Periodic TableUploaded byscottsum
- ConsciousnessUploaded byscottsum
- The Philippine Health Care Delivery System & Primary Health CareUploaded byscottsum
- Microscopy, Staining, & ClassificationUploaded byscottsum
- Ecosystems & EnvironmentUploaded byscottsum
- Applied & Environmental MicrobiologyUploaded byscottsum
- Earth's HistoryUploaded byscottsum
- The Nature of ScienceUploaded byscottsum
- 12. Earth's Surface Land & WaterUploaded byscottsum
- 19. Organic CompoundsUploaded byscottsum

- kjlc_ed09_sec05_web200910Uploaded byNickMolo
- Exp1 Simple and Fractional DistillationUploaded byCheng Bauzon
- Differential Pressure SwitchesUploaded bysales1068
- Us 3113457Uploaded bysierthin
- CPB 20104 Mass Transfer 2 UniKL MICET Experiment 1: Cooling towerUploaded bySiti Hajar Mohamed
- Reynolds Equation for Thin Film FlowsUploaded bytomekzawistowski
- Booster Operation Manual key power 8v92Uploaded byArtari R
- Mid Fatigue Plastic Water Pipe 01-12-12Uploaded byJohn Rong
- Guide to Hydro Power( Hydro Planing)Uploaded byVikas Marwah
- FlexRax 4000 Multi-Gauge Vacuum Measurement Controller Data SheetUploaded byInstruTech, Inc.
- Students_ Sheet 2Uploaded bybasemhazem
- 3582Uploaded byAmiroucheBenlakehal
- Roto Therm Pressure GaugeUploaded byGovundan Guru
- Plunger Lift 2Uploaded byndlr81
- Mil Std 810cUploaded byNicolasSuch
- UNDERSTANDING Paper 2 Section B Physics SPMUploaded byCikgu Faizal
- Use Reflection Tomography Predict Pore Pressure in Overpressured ReservoirUploaded byRosa K Chang H
- TEMA 7_2 Transients in the Hydro-Drive of Ship ElevatorUploaded byGeorge-Claudiu Gaureanu
- SE.pdfUploaded bytesfayregs gebretsadik
- 2017 - Review of Nature-Inspired Heat Exchanger TechnologyUploaded byCarlos Fernando Rojas Tovar
- 0625_2009_qp_3Uploaded byMr-Mohamed Ali
- intro_to_acoustics.pdfUploaded byIván Romero
- 13-Pneumatics.pdfUploaded byMohamed Sayed Abdel Gaffar
- Komiyama 2004-Relief Space and HolesUploaded byJithin Krishnan
- Aalborg EM201302 Rotameter AUploaded bympica
- Air Movement in and Around BuildingUploaded byJaya Suriya Natesan
- Venturi MeterUploaded byrafai1
- Tuto. SOLIDWORKS.pdfUploaded byHarold Aponte
- JSSStandards_JSS 50101-1996_2Uploaded byswathi_efftronics
- COG O-Ring 1x1 Basic en 2012Uploaded bycosmin75