18th CENTURY – AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT

FRANCE - Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin, La Fontaine (1733) • • Influenced by Dutch Baroque artist Vermeer (Daily activity) Small, honest and humble paintings

FRANCE - Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin, Pipe and Jug (ca. 1750 ?) • • Very mundane, nothing elaborate. End of 18th century, Rococo comes to an abrupt end (Autocracy is declined)

18th CENTURY – AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT

FRANCE – Jean Antoine Houdon • Portrait Bust - Thomas Jefferson (1789)

FRANCE - Jean Baptipste Greuze, The Village Bride (1781) • • • Moralizing genre Paris Salon Father giving away his daughter, honest painting

NEOCLASSICISM
FRANCE – Jacques Louis David, Oath Of Haratii (1784-85) • • • • • • • Prix de Rome History Painting

“exemplum virtuitus” (example of virtue) Pompeii excavation Revolution of 1789 1st to embrace neoclassicism Divided into 3 sections, framed by arches Oath of allegiance (Defend Rome)

FRANCE – Jacques Louis David, Death of Socrates (1787) • • Ancient Greek subject Christian reference – Socrates has 12 students, like Christ with his 12 apostles

NEOCLASSICISM
FRANCE – Jacques Louis David, Death of Marat (1793) • • • • Marat was a writer, close friend of David. Image of a martyr Very stark, gruesome painting Heaviness/weight at the bottom Very realistic, influenced by Caravaggio

FRANCE – Jacques Louis David Napoleon at Saint Bernard Pass (1800) • • Painted to make Napoleon look taller Idealized – In reality, Napoleon was on a mule

NEOCLASSICISM
FRANCE – Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (Student of David) Napoleon Enthroned (1806) • • • Linear, crisp, clean, enamel like surface (characteristic of neoclassical style) Eagle – emblem, Roman emperor wore red, Laurel reef crown – given to Olympic athletes, etc.

FRANCE – Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (Student of David) Grande Odalisque (1841) • • Harem girl Influenced by mannerist style (long arm)

NEOCLASSICISM
FRANCE – Jacques Germain Soufflot, Pantheon, Paris (1755-92) • Called Sainte Genevieve when Soufflot designed it.

ITALY – Antonio Canova, Cupid and Psyche (1787-1793)

NEOCLASSICISM

ITALY – Antonio Canova, Maria Paolina Borghese as Venus (1808) • • Maria was Napoleon’ sister, made to represent Venus. Very idealized, semi nude

AMERICA – Benjiman West, Death of General Wolfe (1770) • • Contemporary history painting Emotional

NEOCLASSICISM
AMERICA – John Singleton Copley, Watson and the Shark (1778) • Subject matter is Romantic, but style of painting is Neoclassical

AMERICA – John Singleton Copley, Paul Revere (ca. 1768-1770)

NEOCLASSICISM

AMERICA – Burlington and Kent, Chiswick House, London (1725) • • Inspired by Villa Rotunda Symmetrical, octagonal dome, Corinthian columns

AMERICA – Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, Virginia (1769-1809) • • Influenced by Chiswick House and Villa Rotunda Built with brick and wood, painted to look like marble

ROMANTICISM
FRANCE – Antoine Jean Gros, Napoleon at Jaffa (1804) • • • • Student of David Contemporary history painting Neoclassical – Rational, logical, analytical – THINKING (Renaissance) Romantic – Feeling, emotion, passion – FEELING (Baroque)

FRANCE – Theodore Gericault, Raft of the Medusa (1819) • • • • Student of David History painting Human pyramid, drama, ship in horizon, big wave taking everything down Gericault died when he was 32 (Fell off a horse)

ROMANTICISM
FRANCE – Eugene Delacroix, Massacre at Chios (1822-24) • • • • • One of the most important French artist representing the Romanticism style Contemporary history painting Island of Chios - story Everything pushed on the sides – focus is the empty space 1st artist to study the theories of local and optical color

FRANCE – Eugene Delacroix, Death of Sardanapalus (1826) • Painterly style – looks like a Baroque painting

ROMANTICISM
FRANCE – Eugene Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People (1830) • • • • Very admired painting Revolution of 1830 Allegorical figure – holding the flag, wearing a bonnet on her head Semi nude – classical influence

FRANCE – Francois Rude, La Marseillaise (1833-36) • • • • French National Anthem Departure of the volunteers of 1792 High relief sculpture Arch de Triumph, Paris

ROMANTICISM
SPAIN – Francisco Goya, Family of Charles IV (1800) • • • • David and Goya were very similar artists with almost same birth and death dates – both influenced by Napoleon Corrupt family, incompetent of ruling Goya included himself in the painting – influenced by Velázquez in Las Meninas Goya is in shadow – almost ashamed to be associated with the Royal family

SPAIN – Francisco Goya, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (1798) • • • Frontispiece to Los Caprichos series Aquatint and Etching – 1st artist to master this technique Related to the ideas of enlightenment, which has gone to sleep

ROMANTICISM
SPAIN – Francisco Goya, Third of May, 1808 (1814) • • • • • Natural/Real event Overlaps Romanticism and Realism He man about to be shot, looks innocent – wearing a pure/white shit. Hands up/out like Christ – Crucifiction Painted 4 years after the actual event, for everyone to see and remember what had happened

SPAIN – Francisco Goya, Saturn Devouring his Children (1820-22) • • Goya develops hearing problems in the later years of his life – paints “Black paintings” during this time Isolated genius

ROMANTICISM

ENGLAND – William Blake, ancient of Days (1794) • • Painter, poet, printmaker Influenced by Michelangelo

ENGLAND – John Constable, The Haywain (1820) • • Sense of nostalgia, characterizing it’s romantic notion Painted identifiable landscapes

ROMANTICISM

ENGLAND – Jopseph Mallord William Turner, The Slave Ship (1840) • • • Edmund Burke and the “Sublime” Painterly artist/approach – Landscape/Seascape Painting based on a national historical event – Slave trade

ENGLAND – Jopseph Mallord William Turner, Burning of the Houses of Lords & Commons (1835) • • Very abstract “Sublime” – Concept very important for romantic artist. Terrifying awe – good thing, but terrifying at the same time

ROMANTICISM
ENGLAND – Horace Walpole, Strawberry Hill (1749-77) • • Anti classical Inspired by Gothic/Medieval style (Revival)

ENGLAND – John Nash, Royal Pavilion, Brighton (1815-18) • • • Islamic architecture Influenced by Taj Mahal Onion dome

ROMANTICISM

ENGLAND – Barry and Pugin, Houses of Parliament, London (1836-70) • • • Gothic Revival Big Ben Part of nostalgia – how things used to be

REALISM
FRANCE – Gustave Courbet, Burial at Ornans (1849) • • • • Oven grave – Inspired by his grandfathers burial – Genre scene Revolution of 1848 Socialism Focus on the eyes, the real world, Mundane activities, here and now, observational facts, things that are experienced, no judgment – neutral Courbet –Self taught, painted several self portraits in different costumes. Big ego. Liked to create a stir with his work

FRANCE – Gustave Courbet, The Stone Breakers (1849) • • • • • • • Big painting (about 10’ across) Courbet was a socialist politically Painting depicts harsh/grim reality of the society Faces not seen – every person Young and Old man, both not right age for this hard work Figures very close to the foreground – in your face Socialist defend his work as they like the message he is portraying

REALISM

FRANCE – Gustave Courbet, Interior of My Studio: A Real Allegory (1855) • • “Realist Manifesto” Focal point – Courbet himself

FRANCE – Honore Daumier, Rue Transnonian (1834) • • • • • Lithograph – Looks like a pencil/charcoal drawing Depicts the event after it has happened Influence of photography ( recently developed) Anticlassical composition – cropping Based on accounts of what happened

REALISM

FRANCE – Honore Daumier, Third Class Carriage (1862) • • No one is interacting with each other Mother, daughter and grandchild – no dad. Growing reality of the society - Divorce

FRANCE – Jean Francois Millet, The Gleaners (1857) • • • • Women gleaning the field after the harvesting party has moved on Like Courbet, you cannot see the faces of the figures 3 grain stacks in the background echoed by the 3 women in the foreground Women wearing caps in Blue, Red and Yellow (primary colors)

REALISM

FRANCE – Rosa Bonheur, Plowing in the Nivernals (1849) • • • • • Very successful artist. Won numerous awards Loved painting animals – owned lions Trained by her father, who was a painter Painting overlaps between romanticism and realism She had to get permission (renew every 6 months) to be able to wear pants in public

FRANCE – Rosa Bonheur, The Horse Fair (1853)

REALISM

USA – Thomas Cole, The Oxbow (1836) • • • • • • “Hudson River School” – capturing the American country landscape Landscape paintings are big in the 19th century Thomas Cole – Father of American landscape paintings Recognizable landscape Artist included himself in the painting Overlaps between romanticism and realism USA – Winslow Homer, Breezing Up (1873-76) • Homer liked to paint people – genre scenes – bring the past back to life

REALISM

USA – Thomas Eakins, The Gross Clinic (1875) • • • Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts – Professor Depicts Dr. Gross demonstrating a surgery to his students. Being helped by his assistants On the left with her face covered is the mother of the patient

ENGLAND – William Holman Hunt, Hireling Shepherd (1851) • The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood – Group of 3 artists (William Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and John Everett Maillais) who believed that true/good art only prevailed till the time of Raphael Lots of iconography ?

REALISM

ENGLAND – William Holman Hunt, Awakening Conscience (1853) • • “Victorian Period” The women is the mistress – she’s looking out the window realizing she’s been doing wrong

ENGLAND – Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Ecce Ancilla Domini (1850) • • Biblical/ Annunciation scene (painted like Frangelico) – flat halos Rossetti often used family members as models – Mary is Rossetti’s sister

REALISM

ENGLAND – John Everett Millais, John Ruskin (1854)

ENGLAND – John Everett Millais, Christ in the House of his Parents(1850) • • • • Joseph, the carpenter (father) John, the Baptist (cousin) with a bowl of water Building a door Jesus' hand is hurt/bleeding – Illusion of the crucifiction

REALISM
ENGLAND – Joseph Paxton, Crystal Palace, London (1850-51) • • • Cast Iron/glass Paxton was a green house (for plants) designer After the world fair, the entire place was taken down and reassembled in a different place. It finally burnt down – does not exist today.

IMPRESSIONISM
Edouard Manet, Luncheon on the Grass (1863) • • • • Salon des Refuses – Salon of the refused. Painting got a lot of attention Influence – Giorgione’s Fete Champetre. Manet updated the theme – Businessmen have lunch in park with prostitutes Composition – Raphael's engraving. People were very offended Very flat painting – no shading or modeling. shallow sense of space.

Edouard Manet, Olympia (1865) • • • • • “epater la bourgeoisie” Influenced by Venus by Titian Olympia very flat, no shading or modeling. Same model as Luncheon on the grass Assertive, self confident prostitute living quite luxuriously

IMPRESSIONISM

Edouard Manet, Zola (1868) • • • Portrait of his friend Emanuel Zola Very flat, but high contrast No personality in the figure Edouard Manet, Bar at the Folies-Bergere (1881-82)

Claude Monet, Impression: Sunrise (1872)

IMPRESSIONISM
Claude Monet, The Railroad Bridge (1874) • “plein-air”

Claude Monet, Gare St. Lazare (1877)

IMPRESSIONISM
Claude Monet, Rouen Cathedral (1894) • Series paintings

Pierre Auguste Renoir, Moulin de la Galette (1876)

IMPRESSIONISM
Pierre Auguste Renoir, Luncheon of the Boating Party (1881)

Edgar Degas, Dancing Lesson (1883-85) • “japonisme”

IMPRESSIONISM
Edgar Degas, The Tub (1886) • Pastel

Edgar Degas, Young Dancer Fourteen Years Old (1880-81) • Mixed Media

IMPRESSIONISM
Mary Cassatt, Boating Party (1893-94)

Mary Cassatt, The Bath (1892)

IMPRESSIONISM
Berthe Morisot, The Cradle (1873)

Auguste Rodin, The Thinker (1879-89)

IMPRESSIONISM

Auguste Rodin, Burghers of Calais (1884-89)

Auguste Rodin, Balzac (1891-97)

IMPRESSIONISM
James Abbott McNeil Whistler, Arrangement in Black and Grey (1871) • Portrait of the artist’s mother

James Abbott McNeil Whistler, Nocturne in Black and Gold (1875) The Falling Rocket

IMPRESSIONISM

Charles Garnier, The Opera, Paris (1861-74)

POST-IMPRESSIONISM

Georges Seurat, Sunday Afternoon on the Island of the Grande Jatte (1884-86) • • • Chevreul, Law of Simultaneous Contrasts Complementary colors Pointalism, divisionism, “neo-impressionism”

Vincent Van Gogh, Potato Eaters (1885)

POST-IMPRESSIONISM

Vincent Van Gogh, Self Portrait (1889) • Brother Theo

Vincent Van Gogh, Night Café (1888)

POST-IMPRESSIONISM
Vincent Van Gogh, Bedroom at Aries (1889)

Vincent Van Gogh, Wheatfield with Reaper (1889)

POST-IMPRESSIONISM

Vincent Van Gogh, Starry Night (1889) • • St. Remy Impasto

Paul Gauguin, Vision After the Sermon (1888) (Jacob & the Angel) • Brittany

POST-IMPRESSIONISM
Paul Gauguin, Self Portrait with Halo (1889)

Paul Gauguin, Nevermore (1897) • • Tahiti “Primitive”, “Savage”

POST-IMPRESSIONISM

Paul Gauguin, Where Do We Come From?.... (1897)

Paul Cezanne, Bay from L’Estaque (1886)

POST-IMPRESSIONISM
Paul Cezanne, Self Portrait (1872)

Paul Cezanne, Self Portrait (1879)

Paul Cezanne, Basket of Apples (1895)

POST-IMPRESSIONISM

Paul Cezanne, Mont Sainte-Victoire (1904-06)

Paul Cezanne, The Large Bathers (1898-1905)

POST-IMPRESSIONISM
Gustave Eiffle, Eiffle Tower (1887-89)

Louis Sullivan, Wainwright Building (1890-91)

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