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Submitted by :
Anuj Arora, 5 Binit Jain, 11 Hansa Dhanwani, 17 Kumar Gaurav, 24 Kunal Kishore, 26 Shobhit Verma, 43

A leader is one who knows the way, goes the way, and shows the way.

John C. Maxwell

What is Leadership?

Definition :

It is the ability to influence a group toward

the achievement of a vision or set of goals.

How are Leaders different from Managers

Basis Origin Manager Leader A person becomes a manager by A person becomes a virtue of his position leader by virtue of his personal qualities Manager has got formal rights in Rights may or may not be an organization by virtue of his available to a leader position

Formal Rights


The subordinates are followers of The group of employees a Manager whom the leader leads are his followers
A manager performs all functions of management Managers Communicate Managers are focused Managers react to change five Leader influences people to work willingly for the group Leaders persuade Leaders create shared focus Leaders create change

Functions Interaction Focus Change

Various Leadership Theories :

1. Trait Theory 2. Behavioral Theory 3. Contingency Theory (Fiedler, Hersey Blanchards Theory) 4. Leader Member Exchange Theory


Trait Theory
What do you mean by a Trait ? Trait is a distinguishing quality or characteristic, typically one belonging to a person.

Examples of Traits : Charisma Enthusiasm Courage Honesty Patience

Trait Theory of Leadership

Trait Theories of leadership differentiate leaders from non leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics.

Big Five Traits

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Stability Openness to experience

Emotional Intelligence
Recent Studies have indicated that another trait that may indicate effective leadership is Emotional Intelligence. Why is Emotional Intelligence so critical for effective leadership?

Conclusions of Trait theory

1. Traits can predict leadership. 2. Traits do a better job at actually predicting the emergence of leaders and the appearance of leadership than in actually distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders.

Trait Vs Behavioral Theory

Trait research provides a basis for selecting the right person to assume formal positions in groups and organizations requiring leadership. In contrast, if behavioral theories were to turn up critical behavioral determinants of leadership, we could train people to be leaders. Trait theory assumes leaders are born rather than made. However, if there were specific behaviors that identified leaders, then we could teach leadership.- we could design programs that implanted these behavioral patterns in individuals who desired to be effective leaders.

Behavioral Theory
Ohio State Studies University of Michigan Studies The Managerial Grid

Ohio State Studies

Initiating Structure Refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of employees in search for goal attainment. Consideration Is described as the extent to which a person is likely to have job relationships that are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees ideas and regard for their feelings.

Conclusion of Ohio State Study

The results were thought to be disappointing, however, recent reviews suggest that this two factor conceptualization was given a premature burial. A review of 160 studies found that both initiating structure and consideration were associated with effective leadership. Followers of leaders who were high in consideration were more satisfied with their jobs and more motivated and also had respect for their leader. Initiating structure , however, was more strongly related to higher levels of group and organization productivity and more positive performance evaluations.

University of Michigan Studies

Employee oriented Described as emphasizing interpersonal relations; they took personal interest in the needs of their employees and accepted individual differences among members. Production oriented Tended to emphasize the technical or task aspects of job their main concern was in accomplishing their groups tasks and the group were a means to that end.

Conclusion of Michigan Study

The conclusions favored the leaders who were employee oriented in their behavior. Employee oriented leaders were associated with higher group productivity and higher job satisfaction. Product oriented leaders tended to be associated with low group productivity and lower job satisfaction. Although the Michigan Studies emphasized employeeoriented leadership over production oriented leadership, the Ohio State studies garnered more research attention and suggested that both consideration and initiating structure are important to effective leadership.

The Managerial Grid

The Managerial Grid is based on styles of concern for people and concern for production

Conclusion of Managerial Grid

The grid does not show results produced, but, rather, the dominating factors in a leaders thinking in regard to getting results. Based on the findings, the managers were found to perform best under a 9,9 style, as contrasted for example, with a 9,1 (authority type) or 1,9 (laissez-faire type) style.

Summary of Trait and Behavioral Theory

Leaders who have certain traits, and who display consideration and structuring behaviors, do appear to be more effective. Perhaps trait theories and behavioral theories should be integrated. Trait theory and Behavioral theories arent the last word on leadership. As important as trait theories and behavioral theories are in determining effective versus ineffective leaders, they do not guarantee a leaders success. The context matters too.

References :
Organizational Behavior by Stephen P. Robbins


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