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Mechatronics Engineering

Fluid Mechanics
Fluids Properties
M.C. Jorge de Anda Salazar
MTR 5A Monserrat Aguilar Vzquez Fernando Bonilla Barba Jonathan Javier Cruz guila Jorge Armando Daz de Luna Carlos Sal Prez Medina UP110076 UP110057 UP110064 UP110070 UP110082
May 20th, 2013. Aguascalientes, Ags.

SPECIFIC MASS
Specific mass is referred to the amount of material per volume unit of a substance. = lim 0 3

The specific mass of the fluid varies with temperature and pressure. In liquids at normal

pressures, the influence of the temperature is


more important.

SPECIFIC WEIGHT
The specific weight corresponds to the force with which the earth attracts a unit volume.

DENSITY
It is the relationship between the specific mass of any substance and the reference substance.

STATE EQUATION
With macroscopic quantities of pressure (P),
temperature (T) and specific volume (v) or the specific mass () is customary to characterize the equilibrium conditions that can be found in a fluid.

=
The relationship between this quantities is called state
equation and is characteristic of each matter.

COMPRESSIBILITY
Compressibility represents the relationship between volume change and pressure change which is subjected to a fluid.

COMPRESSIBILITY
Volume changes can be directly related to the changes of the specific mass () if the amount of matter remains constant.

Is generally known that in the specific mass fluids


depends on both the pressure and temperature according to the equation of state.

COMPRESSIBILITY
=
Where:
: Compression unit effort : Specific volume
3 3 2

: Increased specific volume : Bulk Modulus


2

The sign says that an increase in pressure corresponds to a decrease in volume.

COMPRESSIBILITY OF A LIQUID
The compressibility (change in volume due to change in pressure) of a liquid is inversely proportional to its volume modulus of elasticity, also known as the bulk modulus. = =

This is a property practically independent of


temperature.

COMPRESSIBILITY OF A GAS
For the case of ideal gases can get the value of of

the equation by differentiation process. = Where:

COMPRESSIBILITY OF A GAS
Then: = Such that the coefficient of compressibility of gases is not constant but it depends on the process and one

can see that:


= 0 For isobaric processes = 0 = 1 For isotherm processes = 1 = P For adiabatic processes = = For isochoric processes =

VISCOSITY
The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to deformation. Viscosity is the friction between the different layers of a fluid.

High viscosity fluids have a certain resistance to


flow.

The low viscosity fluids flow easily.

VISCOSITY

A fluid is viscous when its mechanical energy is not constant.

NEWTONS VISCOSITY LAW


SHEAR STRESS: = NVL: =

Where:
: absolute viscosity of a fluid dV: Velocity dy: Separation between de layers

NEWTONS VISCOSITY LAW


=

Then it can be defined as a property viscosity fluid


whereby it resists deformation caused by angular shear.

DYNAMIC VISCOSITY
The constant of proportionality between and called the dynamic viscosity.

is

The deformation constantly increasing under the


action of shear stress, however small it could be. =

DYNAMIC VISCOSITY
The dynamic viscosity of the fluid varies greatly with

temperature, increasing with gas temperature and


decreasing in the liquid, but in some other is practically independent of pressure.

KINEMATICS VISCOSITY
=
: : :

This property represents the difficulty opposed to drain fluid subjected to the internal stresses caused by their own weight. The kinematic viscosity of gases varies greatly with

temperature and pressure while in the liquid only


varies with temperature.

TURBULENT FLOW
When does it occurs?
Turbulent flow occurs when the flow velocities are generally very high or fluids in which the viscous forces are very small.

TURBULENT FLOW
Types:

Wall turbulence:

Generated by viscous effects due to the existence of walls.

Free turbulence:

Produced at the wall and the absence of motion


generated by the fluid layers at different speeds.

TURBULENT FLOW
In turbulent flow the particles move in irregular paths that are not smooth or fixed. If the flow is turbulent the viscous forces are weak relative to the inertial forces

TURBULENT FLOW
Is characterized by:

Fluid particles do not move along defined paths. The action of viscosity is negligible. Fluid particles possess appreciable rotational energy, and they move erratically colliding with each other.

Particles entering fluid layers of differing speed, its


momentum increases or decreases, and the particles made in the opposite.

LAMINAR FLOW
The particles are moved along parallel paths, thus forming layers or sheets together, hence the name, the fluid moves without any significant mixing of another fluid particle. This flow is governed by the law

relating shear stress to angular deformation rate

SURFACE TENSION
Liquids have cohesion and adhesion, both of which are forms of molecular attraction.

Cohesion enables a liquid to resist tensile stress

Adhesion enables it to adhere to another body

SURFACE TENSION
Surface tension is a force, as its name suggests, produces effects of surface tension of liquids, where the fluid comes into contact with another immiscible fluid

(liquid with a gas) or (liquid with solid contour).

Fluids Properties

Compressibility

Viscosity

Flow

Surface Tension

Liquids

Dynamic

Laminar

Perfect Gases

Kinematics

Turbulent