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Fluid Mechanics

Fluids Properties

M.C. Jorge de Anda Salazar

MTR 5A Monserrat Aguilar Vzquez Fernando Bonilla Barba Jonathan Javier Cruz guila Jorge Armando Daz de Luna Carlos Sal Prez Medina UP110076 UP110057 UP110064 UP110070 UP110082

May 20th, 2013. Aguascalientes, Ags.

SPECIFIC MASS

Specific mass is referred to the amount of material per volume unit of a substance. = lim 0 3

The specific mass of the fluid varies with temperature and pressure. In liquids at normal

more important.

SPECIFIC WEIGHT

The specific weight corresponds to the force with which the earth attracts a unit volume.

DENSITY

It is the relationship between the specific mass of any substance and the reference substance.

STATE EQUATION

With macroscopic quantities of pressure (P),

temperature (T) and specific volume (v) or the specific mass () is customary to characterize the equilibrium conditions that can be found in a fluid.

=

The relationship between this quantities is called state

equation and is characteristic of each matter.

COMPRESSIBILITY

Compressibility represents the relationship between volume change and pressure change which is subjected to a fluid.

COMPRESSIBILITY

Volume changes can be directly related to the changes of the specific mass () if the amount of matter remains constant.

depends on both the pressure and temperature according to the equation of state.

COMPRESSIBILITY

=

Where:

: Compression unit effort : Specific volume

3 3 2

2

COMPRESSIBILITY OF A LIQUID

The compressibility (change in volume due to change in pressure) of a liquid is inversely proportional to its volume modulus of elasticity, also known as the bulk modulus. = =

temperature.

COMPRESSIBILITY OF A GAS

For the case of ideal gases can get the value of of

COMPRESSIBILITY OF A GAS

Then: = Such that the coefficient of compressibility of gases is not constant but it depends on the process and one

= 0 For isobaric processes = 0 = 1 For isotherm processes = 1 = P For adiabatic processes = = For isochoric processes =

VISCOSITY

The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to deformation. Viscosity is the friction between the different layers of a fluid.

flow.

VISCOSITY

SHEAR STRESS: = NVL: =

Where:

: absolute viscosity of a fluid dV: Velocity dy: Separation between de layers

=

whereby it resists deformation caused by angular shear.

DYNAMIC VISCOSITY

The constant of proportionality between and called the dynamic viscosity.

is

action of shear stress, however small it could be. =

DYNAMIC VISCOSITY

The dynamic viscosity of the fluid varies greatly with

decreasing in the liquid, but in some other is practically independent of pressure.

KINEMATICS VISCOSITY

=

: : :

This property represents the difficulty opposed to drain fluid subjected to the internal stresses caused by their own weight. The kinematic viscosity of gases varies greatly with

varies with temperature.

TURBULENT FLOW

When does it occurs?

Turbulent flow occurs when the flow velocities are generally very high or fluids in which the viscous forces are very small.

TURBULENT FLOW

Types:

Wall turbulence:

Free turbulence:

generated by the fluid layers at different speeds.

TURBULENT FLOW

In turbulent flow the particles move in irregular paths that are not smooth or fixed. If the flow is turbulent the viscous forces are weak relative to the inertial forces

TURBULENT FLOW

Is characterized by:

Fluid particles do not move along defined paths. The action of viscosity is negligible. Fluid particles possess appreciable rotational energy, and they move erratically colliding with each other.

momentum increases or decreases, and the particles made in the opposite.

LAMINAR FLOW

The particles are moved along parallel paths, thus forming layers or sheets together, hence the name, the fluid moves without any significant mixing of another fluid particle. This flow is governed by the law

SURFACE TENSION

Liquids have cohesion and adhesion, both of which are forms of molecular attraction.

SURFACE TENSION

Surface tension is a force, as its name suggests, produces effects of surface tension of liquids, where the fluid comes into contact with another immiscible fluid

Fluids Properties

Compressibility

Viscosity

Flow

Surface Tension

Liquids

Dynamic

Laminar

Perfect Gases

Kinematics

Turbulent

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