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D. Gross1, B.X. Xu2, R. Müller3
1
2 3
Division of Solid Mechanics, TU Darmstadt
Dept. of Material Science, TU Darmstadt Chair of Mechanics, TU Kaiserslautern
TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012 
Ferroelectrics
Dielectric Elastomers
Ferroelectrets
Hillenbrand & Sessler, 2000
TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012 
Ferroelectrics
BaTiO3, PZT
electromechanical coupling principle
+
T>TCurie: cubic
T<TCurie: tetragonal
P0
+
piezoelectric effect E<Ecoerc
+
polarization switch E>Ecoerc
E
P0
P0
E + 
E

remanent polarization, remanent strain switching due to electrical and mechanical loads
TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012 
micro structural aspects
domains damaged domains polycrystal
Schmitt & Kleebe, 2006
Jaffe, 2001
dielectric hystersis
macroscopic behaviour
butterfly hystersis
Boehle, 1999 TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012 
2005 Deluca. interaction with domain walls cracking Strain. s [10 ] 3 1 0 1 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 Electric Field.Problems 2 electric fatigue under cyclic loading point defects (oxygen vacancies?) agglomeration. 2002 Utschig. 2010 TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  . E [kV/mm] Lupascu.
Phase field model Basic equations Balance laws Constitutive relations : remanent polarization : remanent strain : elasticity tensor : piezoelectric tensor Kinematics and electric potential : dielectric tensor TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  .
Phase field model remanent polarization P is considered as order parameter extended electric enthalpy : local (classical) electric enthalpy : domain separation energy : interface energy evolution of P (GinzburgLandau) TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  AK 2012  .
local (classical) electric enthalpy interface energy separation energy TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  AK 2012  .
arbitrary geometry & boundary conditions nodal degrees of freedom: implicit time integration of GinzburgLandau equation nonlinearity: Newton iteration required damping and stiffness matrix required symmetric system matrix direct computation of configurational forces TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  .Numerical implementation FEM.
Example: microstructure evolution at a crack tip TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  .
Microstructure at stationary crack tip TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  .
J integral and configurational forces TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  .
configurational forces TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  .
Dependence on applied electric field positive electric field inhibits crack initiation negative electric field Wang & Singh 1997 TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  promotes crack initiation .
Crack face boundary conditions permeable: impermeable: semipermeable: energy consistent: TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  .
Influence of boundary conditions TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  .
Open questions influence of 2d/3d character boundary conditions for order parameter (polarization) conditions at grain boundaries in polycrystals initial conditions (virgin state of the material) origin of the characteristic spacing of domains importance of surrounding fields motion of point defects in the „phase field continuum“ TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  .
Dielectric Elastomer Actuators piezo actuators vs. dielectric elastomer actuators piezo actuator soft actuator coupling through constituive laws small displacements large actuation force coupling through electrostatic volume forces: MAXWELL stresses large displacements small actuation force TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  Dresden 2011  .
Basic equations Balance laws MAXWELL stress Constitutive relations (actual configuration) Neo Hooke Kinematics and electric potential TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  .
Analysis of electromechanical stability initial dimension: deformed dimension: TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  Dresden 2011  .
Constitutive equations Equilibrium TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  Dresden 2011  .
Equilibrium configuration Stability (Lagrange multiplyer strategy) TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  Dresden 2011  .
2007 TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  Dresden 2011  .NeoHooke model special case: Zhao & Suo.
arbitrary geometry & boundary conditions perfect agreement between analytical and numerical results simulation and optimization of composites possible direct computation of configurational forces possible simulation of dynamic response TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  .Numerics FEM.
homogeneous inhomogeneous barium titanate particle TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  .
Charge Density Evolution of Ferroelectrets diel 1 diel interface 2 piezoelectric 2 phase material (composite) specific interface properties (macroscopic) coupling through constitutive law (microscopic) coupling through electrostatic volume forces: MAXWELL stresses large displacements TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  .
Basic equations no breakdown: 2 dielectric materials charge density. 1st breakdown breakdown criterion backfield evolution charge density evolution TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  .
Numerics incremental time integration of internal variables similar to plasticity with kinematic hardening nonlinear FEM implementation specific (embedded) interface element Example: FEP – ePTFE unit ePTFE FEP TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  .
TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  .
B B C C TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  .
Conclusions modeling & simulation offers a deeper insight in coupled problems allows to replace (some) experiments allows to analyze and optimize structures nonlinear FEM and use of configurational forces often advantageous TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  .
interface energy separation energy TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  AK 2012  .
config body force inhomogeneities (singularities) cause configurational forces resultant configurational force: configurational force on a point defect: configuartional traction acting on an interface: driving force at a domain wall: overall driving force: TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  .Configurational forces configurational force balance Eshelby stress tensor.
Microstrucure evolution. Poling phase 1 : from random distribution towards equilibrium phase 2 : application of an external field TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  AK 2012  .
TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  ACMFMS 2012  .3D microstructure evolution potential free b.c.
3D electric poling TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  AK 2012  .
Influence of domain wall energy TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  AK 2012  .
Domain wall thickness ϵ = 8.0 e7 m TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  AK 2012  .
0 e7 m TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  AK 2012  .Domain wall thickness ϵ = 5.
Domain wall thickness ϵ = 2.0 e7 m TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  AK 2012  .
TUD Division of Solid Mechanics  AK 2012  .c.Size effect: thin films Electric b.c. Robin b.
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